The religion of Judaism cannot be separated from the history of its people: A religion, a people/nation, a culture, and ethnicity Jews are those.
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Post on 17-Dec-2015
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- The religion of Judaism cannot be separated from the history of its people: A religion, a people/nation, a culture, and ethnicity Jews are those who experience their long and often difficult history as a continuing dialogue with God The founder was Abraham, but many consider Moses to be the founder as well.
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- The God of Abraham was called El Shaddai The God of Moses was called YHWH (Yahweh)- I am that I am Another name for God used in the Old Testament was Elohim
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- Look up the roots of the words El Shaddai, Elohim and YHWH. At least Two Paragraphs answering these questions: What do they mean ? Is there any connection to Allah?
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- Judaism is a strongly earth focused religion. It is more concerned with this life than the afterlife- The main focus is that of ethics and doing Gods will. Judaism sees man as having free will and being constantly faced with the choice between good and evil
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- Jewish path is one of loving God and trying to be like him God offered to share the divine law with 70 nations, but only the tribes of Israel answered the call to enter into a living covenant with their creator Jews still feel this call is open to all Israel refers to all who answer the call, who acknowledge and strive to obey the one God through teachings given to the patriarchs, Moses, and the prophets
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- Tanakh- Jewish Scriptures stories end @2 nd century BCE Talmud- Jewish Law and Lore compiled in 6 th century CE Torah- whole body of Jewish teachings and law Pentateuch- 5 books of Moses Beginning of Tanakh, most sacred part of scriptures
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- Most Hebrews were not truly monotheistic- many wavered back and forth w/ Old gods and animal spirits Canaanites were polytheistic Main idea in early Judaism: rejection of gods of surrounding peoples
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- Israelites came to see themselves as having been chosen by a single divine patron: God was seen as a ruler: like a parent to children or sovereign to vassals Judaism resembles a family
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- Names/Terms: Hebrew comes from the term habiru (term for low class, landless people) Ibri biblical word for Hebrew- Children of Eber Israelites- mixed ethnic stock- Hebrews, Aramaean, and Canaanite Semite- modern word applied to Jews, Arabs and others of Eastern Mediterranean origin (often used inaccurately as an ethnic designation) People who 1 st became known as Israelites were the offspring of Israel (Jacob)- grandson of Abraham
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- Early History: Stories from the Pentateuch
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- Sweeping poetic creation of Heaven and earth by God in 6 days God is a transcendent Creator w/o origin, gender or form EC assignment: What happened on each of the 6 days? At least one FULL paragraph.
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- Some creation accounts see YHWH as a supreme male deity, created all but woman; offshoot of Adam blames woman for all troubles in humanity not supported in Hebrew manuscripts
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- This legend shows though how after being tempted and having strayed from Gods path= exile Theme repeats in Hebrew history People risk Gods displeasure every time they stray from Gods commandments OR Jewish people were spread throughout the world by Gods will, to be good citizens in whichever land they live, and spread Gods word. Way out of exile is through study and righteous living But.. people continually stray from Gods will
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- Noah legend: all men wicked but him: God makes covenant with Noah catastrophic flood, but spares Noah and his family and two of all the creatures of the earth
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- God makes covenant- promises to never destroy the world by flood or interfere with the natural order
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- 1900 BCE: left Ur (present day Iraq), rejects polytheism, chooses to worship one God, God chooses Abram and his followers. Canaan The Promised Land
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- Abrahams Journeys
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- Abram promises to be loyal and obedient to God God will protect Abram, his descendants, will make a great nation Settle in the land of Israel Circumcise males on 8 th day- sign of the living covenant Blood Promise to the one God Changes names to Abraham and Sarah
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- Abraham fears he will not have a son (86 years old) (Wife Sarah 77) Genesis 16 And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. Hagar bears Ishmael Sarah becomes jealous; casts out Hagar and Ishmael Ishmael- Father of Arabs: Muhammad said to be direct descendant
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- Abraham 99 and 1 st wife Sarah 90 have son Isaac Isaac- Father of Israelites Abraham tested- will sacrifice own son to prove loyalty to God God stops Abrahams hand Pleased with his loyalty Rosh Hashanah (sept) and Eid al Adha (nov)
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- Abrahams Geneaology ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes
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- Jacob received the name Israel after wrestling with an angel- Israel- One who struggles with God
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- Research the 4 wives of Jacob. Who were they? Why did Jacob have 4 wives? What role do they play in Jewish History? Dinah was the one daughter of Jacob. Who was she? What is known about her life?
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- Sold into slavery by jealous brothers Rose to become Pharaohs chief advisor for helping the Egyptians to prepare for famine Brought family down from the famine in Canaan to the land of Goshen in Egypt (1740 BCE) Israelites lived for 430 years in Egypt until led out of Egypt by Moses
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- Land of Goshen, Egypt
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- Pharaoh ordered midwives to kill all Hebrew baby boys Pharaoh had dreamed of a leader from the Hebrews who would destroy him Moses: son of the tribe of Levi- mother hid him away for 3 months Basket/Nile river Pharaohs daughter found him and raised him as her own. Moses : to draw Sister Miriam approached the Queen and offered a wet nurse for the child
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- Grew up as Egyptian prince discovered heritage killed an Egyptian overseer fled Pharaohs wrath lived with and married into desert tribe on Sinai Peninsula for 40 years Zipporah- his wife
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- Burning Bush- God speaks directly to Moses Moses was chosen by God to free the Hebrews very conflicted how to free them and lead them back to Canaan?
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- Moses goes back to Egypt; brother Aaron spoke for Moses. Chapters of Exodus tell of the Miracles God performed. Each miracle more impressive than the last, but Pharaohs magicians seemed to match them Final miracle- Killing of all the 1 st born in the land- Israelites spared this fate by marking their doors with blood of a lamb- so that the Angel of Death would Pass Over them. Passover holiday- remembers this event.
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- Research the 10 miracles/plagues of Egypt Name and describe each; take into account how these plagues would have affected the people of Egypt
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- @1450 BCE Pharaoh frees the Hebrews. Red Sea incident Reed Sea? Translation error? travel to Mt Sinai to reestablish the covenant btwn God and his people
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- Route of the Exodus
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- God gave the people a set of rules through Moses: Ten Commandments Set of social norms Prescribed religious feasts Detailed instructions for the holy ark- Ark of the Covenant- keep stone tablets on which God inscribes the commandments
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- A new Covenant with Yahweh
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- Mount Sinai
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- St. Catherines Monastery at Mount Sinai
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- 40 days on the mountain: people became impatient Wanted a God they could see- melted down gold jewelry and cast it into the form of a golden calf- Idol worship- strictly forbidden! Moses smashed the stone tables and destroyed the idol- ordered the Levites to slay the 3000 who had strayed from YHWH
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- Moses went back up on Mt Sinai and received tables again Aaron and sons became priests constructed the Ark and went to Canaan w/ the word of the Lord with them Wandered 40 years/ long sojourn in the wilderness- metaphor for spiritual search- faith is continually tested by difficulties Even in the wilderness, God did not abandon them. Manna and water, protection from enemies
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- 1410-1050 BCE Jews settle in the land of Israel There they divide into 12 tribes each of which is led by a judge. Merge with people who lived there, often strayed from YHWH, worship other gods, idols/ easy prey for other tribes
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- 1050-933 BCE Saul, 1 st King of Israel unites the 12 tribes David, 2 nd King: chosen by prophet Samuel: anointed with oil, Gods choice, Israels greatest king made several alliances, defeated several nations, captured city of Jerusalem and made it his capital, wanted permanent place for Ark.
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- King Davids Empire
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- Solomons Kingdom Solomons Kingdom Solomon, 3 rd King: Constructed the Holy Temple. permanent place for Ark, place for offerings, God was said to have blessed the Temple, Central place for sacrifice for Israelites
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- Recreation of Ancient Jerusalem
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- King Solomons Temple Floor Plan The First Temple
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- Inside the Temple Tabernacle The Arc of the Covenant
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- The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomons Temple Wall: The Wailing Wall
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- After Solomons death the kingdom was divided into the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah Kingdom of Israel: 10 northern tribes/independent of Jerusalem and dynasty of David Kingdom of Judah: continued allegiance to House of David and kept Jerusalem as its capital
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- Prophets: Early ones, like Elijah- spoke out against idolatry, later ones spoke out against social injustice and moral corruption Prophets speak Gods words- not necessarily to predict the future but to keep people on the path Offer corrections EC assignment: research two Prophets from the Torah; Summarize their lives and their message
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- 586 BCE- Babylonians conquer the Kingdom of Judah and destroy the Temple Many taken to Babylonia became known as Jews (from Judah), build new places of worship-synagogues 538 BCE a new Babylonian King: King Cyrus allows Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple Temple completed in 515, central symbol to the scattered Jewish people. Many Jews chose to remain in Babylon very profitable city, not much in Jerusalem
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- Israelites in Captivity
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- In the 400s the priestly Class under Ezra began to edit and revise the Pentateuch 430 BCE Ezra began reading for hours- the scrolls in public- setting the precedent to read and study them (sacred covenant) New ideas blended with early Jewish thoughts as more Jews were exposed to Persians, Greeks and Romans Concepts of Satan, angels, reward or punishment in afterlife Resurrection of body on Day of Judgment are thought by many to have been introduced by Zoroasters. (Persians)
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- 322- 164 BCE King Antiochus and the Greeks: Tried to force Greek ways upon Jewish peoples. Abolished the Torah as Jewish law Burned copies of Torah Killed families with Circumcised sons Built an altar to Zeus in Temple of Jerusalem Sacrificed a hog on the altar Goes against Mosaic law against eating /touching dead pigs as unclean
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- Under the leadership of the Hasmoneans (particularly Judah Maccabee) the Judeans successfully revolt against Antiochus This established a new independent Kingdom once again called Israel. Btwn 164 BCE and 63 BCE Hasmonean Family ruled Israel family of priests This only lasted 100 years- conquered by the Romans in 63 BCE (Pompey) Last independent Jewish nation until 1948 CE
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- 3 Sects of Jews formed 1. Sadducees- priests, wealthy business people, conservatives intent on preserving the letter of the law 2. Pharisees- liberal citizens from all classes, wanted to study how Torah could apply to everyday life
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- 3. Essenes- thought the priesthood was corrupt. Very strict in interpretation, set up a fortified compound at Qumran (near the Dead Sea). Leader Teacher of Righteousness priest/reformer- name not uttered Their library found in 1947 (Dead Sea Scrolls) Essenes emphasized discipline, communal living, obedience, study and preparation for Day of Judgment
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- Under Roman rule Messiah idea began to grow- a man who would rescue his people from suffering. Prophet Daniel in Babylon exile days had spoken of a man who would come and save his people. By 1 st century CE this Messiah would set up Jewish sovereignty over the land of Israel again. All nations would then recognize that Israels God was the God of all the world. This messianic time would 1 st be preceded by a time of great oppression and wickedness Many felt Jesus was the Messiah, his followers became the 1 st Christians Most Jews saw Jesus as a radical who did not fulfill prophecy
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- Zealots: Jewish resistance fighters who fought the Romans 66-73 CE Revolt fails miserably, Romans destroy the 2 nd Temple. Only foundation stones remain. Temple has never been rebuilt- foundation stones are Western Wall- a place of Jewish pilgrimage and prayer
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- The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomons Temple Wall: The Wailing Wall
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- By 135 CE Jews were forbidden to read the Torah, observe Sabbath or circumcise sons None allowed to enter Jerusalem On anniversary of destruction of the Temple, the Romans would allow Jews to go to the remaining wall. had to pay to enter city Judea renamed Palestine- after ancient Philistines Judaism no longer has a physical heart or geographic center.
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- Judaism could have died after the 2 nd destruction of the Temple people spread throughout Mediterranean and Western Asia Two reasons for survival of ideas: 1. Rabbis- Jewish teacher today spiritual leader of Jewish congregation Kept Jewish law and lore alive 2. Christians also survived and carried on a lot of Jewish...
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