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(), () </p><p>(),().</p><p> 15 4 10 100 </p><p>() . 7 4 28 </p><p>, (), () () () </p><p>()</p><p>.</p><p> 16() 9</p><p>11.</p><p>[]</p><p>()</p><p>.</p><p> . </p><p> () () . </p><p>12.</p><p> 6 8 1 21 100. 16</p><p>Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 205</p><p>()()( : )( )( )()()</p><p>[][][] , [][](</p><p>)()[ ]( )()[]()</p><p>()[][]( : )[]</p><p>[ ][]() [ ][]</p><p>[]()()[]()() , (</p><p>) []()()()()()(</p><p>)() ()()</p><p>? .</p><p>()()(</p><p>) .</p><p> ( ) [][]</p><p>[][][][][][][][</p><p>][]()()()()()()</p><p>()()[ ][][][]() </p><p>[ ]()[]()()</p><p>[][][].</p><p> []( )()()()</p><p>.</p><p>() [][ ][][ ][ ] (</p><p>)()()()[].</p><p> [] ()[][ ]( )</p><p>( )()()()( )()()</p><p>().</p><p>[] ()()( ).</p><p>() ()()()()()</p><p>(), () ()( )()()</p><p>()()()()().</p><p>()()</p><p> () () (</p><p>)().</p><p>() () ()</p><p> . </p><p>.</p><p>204 -</p></li><li><p>) () () () ()</p><p>.. </p><p> 10() </p><p>.</p><p> () </p><p> 18</p><p>.</p><p>. 19()1,108</p><p> 164 80</p><p>.</p><p> 31 6 28( : )</p><p>()</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p> 1975 55</p><p>[].</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p> . </p><p>. </p><p>.</p><p>Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 207</p><p>(1474)()()()()()</p><p> ()()() . ,</p><p>.()()</p><p>() () 4,2,60,2,</p><p> 4 72 37, 56, 69, </p><p>59,28,26,2226323.</p><p> 32 4</p><p>.</p><p>()</p><p>..</p><p> . 3 5 29 </p><p>.</p><p> 5 8 18, </p><p> () () </p><p>() () </p><p>..</p><p>()6().</p><p>.</p><p> () ()</p><p> . (</p><p> : ) 5~6 . </p><p> . () </p><p>().</p><p>.</p><p> 9 3 23 </p><p>()</p><p> 10 5 26</p><p>.22() </p><p>()()</p><p>()()().()()</p><p> () () () ().</p><p>()().()(</p><p>206 -</p></li><li><p>Korean Wooden Crafts</p><p>KimSamdaeja(VisitingProfessor,DepartmentofWoodworkingandFurnitureDesign,Hongik University)</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>Woodcarving is a classical art form of creating handcrafted wood items. The pieces of</p><p>woodcarving have been called Mokmul or Mokgi. The former represents all things made of wood,</p><p>while the latter stands for household furniture made of wood in a broad sense, but only wooden</p><p>kitchenware in a narrow sense. </p><p>In Korea, abundant wood resources have been available from long time ago, as large parts of its</p><p>territory are wooded, mountainous areas. People have built wooden houses to live in and used</p><p>wood to make their utensils and work tools. According to Sinjeung-Dongguk-Yeojiseungram(a</p><p>geography book compiled in 1530), there were mokgi stores that sold a variety of wooden products</p><p>such as wooden platters, ssarinong, winnows, and chests. Among them, the most famous were</p><p>Sang mokgi jeon located in front of government ministry buildings and Ha mokgi jeon in Ihyeon. In</p><p>addition, there were specialized mokgi stores called Chil mokgi jeon around Hyogyeong gyo. They</p><p>are known to have mainly handled wooden lacquerware, including wardrobes and paper cabinets.</p><p>This suggests that the term mokgi was widely used at that time. </p><p>However, mokgi burns well and is weak against humidity. Due to the lack of records about or</p><p>remains of mokgi, its hardly possible to find out its types throughout the history at present. Most</p><p>relics found in old tombs are Chilgi (lacquered ware). Speaking of pure mokgi, it seemed nothing</p><p>has remained. Therefore, the types of mokgi in the past can be only estimated through chilgi. Most</p><p>of the Moksim chilgi (wooden lacquerware) items found in tombs of the ancient Three Kingdoms</p><p>are craftworks, which were used as household utensils in the upper-class families. In the Goryeo</p><p>dynasty, the luxurious ceramic and bronze wares were substituted for mokgi. There were memorials</p><p>to kings during the last years of the dynasty. </p><p>In the Joseon dynasty, the royal families and the upper classes had the joiners, who were under</p><p>Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 209</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p> . </p><p> .</p><p>.</p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p>.</p><p>208 -</p></li><li><p>Chungdamsa Temple, and Pyohundaedeokparts; and a wooden table in its Seonyul</p><p>Hwansaengpart. And the Gaya section of the same book, or Garakgukgi (Historical Records of</p><p>the Gaya Kingdom), keeps a record of wooden chairs and tables used in the Silla Kingdom.</p><p>Samguksagi (The History of the Three Kingdoms)includes records of a large chest in its Talhae</p><p>Nisageumpart and a chair and stick in its King Munmupart. </p><p>In the King Eujapart of Baekje Bongi (The Main History of Baekje), there is a record of</p><p>desks used in the Baekje Kingdom. For the Goguryeo Kingdom, Samguksagirecords that people</p><p>served a daughter of Habaek (a tribal god of Buyeo) and the kingdoms high-class god Jumong</p><p>with their wooden figures. </p><p>In relation to the management of trees and wood resources, Samguksagishows that the Silla</p><p>Kingdom had eight government positions; Four of them were each titled Majeon (Jaeinbang),</p><p>Gwegaejeon (Gwebanguk), Yangjeon (Sabunguk), and Chiljeon (Sikgibang). </p><p>While mentioning the government positions of the Baekje Kingdom, the book also quotes</p><p>Buksa (The Northern History)as saying that Baekje had the Ministry of Tree and Wood</p><p>Resources among its 11 government branches. </p><p>The mural paintings on the walls of Goguryeos tombs (such as Ssangyeongchong,</p><p>Muyongchong, Sashinchong, and Gakjeochong) help us guess the living conditions of those times</p><p>as they show wooden benches, chairs, and tables. </p><p>Including plates, trays, quadrangular trays, and cups, some moksim chilgi articles made of</p><p>aromatic trees were discovered in the Togwangmyo Tombs (wooden coffin tombs), which are</p><p>estimated to have been built in the Baekje Dynasty around AD 300. For each of them, the outside</p><p>surface has sawtoothed purple-lacquered bands on a black lacquer base, while the inside is black-</p><p>lacquered overall. </p><p>A pillow and footrest discovered in Munyeongwangneung (The Tomb of King Munyeong) are</p><p>important cultural properties from which we can see Baekjes advanced crafts, at least partly. </p><p>As examples of showing Sillas arts and crafts, a variety of wooden articles including cups,</p><p>trays, plates, bowls, and other chilgi vessels were excavated from many tombs of the dynasty in</p><p>Gyeongju; Kimgwanchong, Kimnyeongchong, Sikyichong, Seobongchong, Cheonmachong, and</p><p>Hwangnamdaechong. And discovered in Anapji Pond were buckets and inkstones made with a</p><p>hooked router and brass bowls and trays as moksim chilgi lacquerware. </p><p>2) M o k m u l and mokgi of the Goryeo dynasty </p><p>From Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo), we can see that joiners titled Somokjang made</p><p>Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 211</p><p>the control of central government, make mokgi and used it for banquets, religious rites, and rituals.</p><p>The commers, on the contrary, made household wares for themselves or bought them from local</p><p>handicraftsmen. The mountain village residents, above all, made most household wares by wood</p><p>and even earned good money by selling them. </p><p>After the restoration of national independence in 1945, a felling was strictly forbidden. Besides,</p><p>our life pattern has changed with the passage of time. Therefore, mokgi has gradually disappeared</p><p>in our daily life. Due to a wide use of veneer boards, especially, our traditional wood-product</p><p>manufacturing crafts have even confronted with the crisis of severance. </p><p>2. Woodcarving History </p><p>Exactly when wooden craft items were first used in Korea is unknown, but judging from</p><p>documentary records and excavated relics it dates back to at least the first century. </p><p>According to the Dongi Yeoljeonof Huhanseo (a history book), Dongi (Koreans labeled as</p><p>eastern bowmen or eastern barbarians) used bird heads as vessels; In Buyeo and Dong Okjeo,</p><p>people used a long wooden receptacle when they held a funeral. It was as large as to accommodate</p><p>other members of a family. A door was set up at one end of the receptacle so that the body could be</p><p>put into it. A receptacle had wooden figures carved on as they were while in life and the number</p><p>was the same as the number of bodies put in it. </p><p>Excavated in 1988, the Daho-ri remains (1st~2nd century BC) of Changwon, Gyeongnam,</p><p>included log coffins, bamboo boxes with grave goods, and moksim chilgi items (such as</p><p>wonhyeongdu, banghyeongdu, and yugaetong). </p><p>Until the chilgi items were discovered in the place, there had been a belief that Koreas chilgi</p><p>culture was influenced by Nakrang. From the discovery, however, it has been verified that they had</p><p>a Koreas own contemporary style different from Chinese lacquerware as their form proved to be</p><p>similar to those of the black-colored Mumun-Togi (no-pattern earthenware) items: Duhyeong-Togi</p><p>(mounted dish earthenware) and Tonghyeong-Togi (bamboo-shaped earthenware). </p><p>1) M o k m u l and m o k g i of the Three Kingdoms and Silla dynasty </p><p>The Silla section of Samgukyusa (The Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms)covers</p><p>records about a large chest in its King Talhaepart; Sageumgapin its Tale of Sageumgap</p><p>part; a wooden lion doll in its King Jijeungpart; a cherry barrel in its King Gyeongdeok,</p><p>210 -</p></li><li><p>3) M o k m u l and Mokgi of the Joseon dynasty </p><p>Eo Deuk Gang (1470~1550), a civil minister in the Joseon dynasty, wrote 20 pieces of poetry</p><p>with 20 utensils: coronet, band, shoes, pillow, bedding, curtain, clothes chest, clothes rack, pot,</p><p>mirror, comb, ruler, seal, glass, geomungo, coffer, flat bench, sword, and folding screen. In his</p><p>Jeungbo Sallimgyeongje(a revised and enlarged version of Sallimgyeongjeby Hong Man</p><p>seon), Yu Jungrim emphasized the convenience and practicability of household necessaries by</p><p>writing If you dont have anything of household necessaries, it will be difficult to borrow it from</p><p>others whenever you need it. Therefore, you should prepare them one by one and step by step,</p><p>focusing on their convenience and duration. In the book, he also listed many other required</p><p>articles. As the list includes almost all living necessaries. It in itself is an important datum in</p><p>understanding household effects of the times. </p><p>As indoor woodenware is among them, the list covered a variety of kitchen utensils including</p><p>barrel, bucket, mortar, pounder, gourd, container, cupboard, dresser, grain chest, tray, and plate;</p><p>household furnishings for use in bedrooms and on the floor including basket, cabinet, chest of</p><p>drawers, table, clothes chest, wardrobe, ruler, and comb box; and household goods for use at the</p><p>male quarters called sarangchae including geomungo (a musical instrument), tungso (a musical</p><p>instrument), desk, flat bed, armrest, safe, lamp, lantern, inkstone case, pencil vase, chair, bookcase,</p><p>baduk board, basin, bamboo mat, rain shoes, cushion, mortar, mattress, candleholder, desk, and</p><p>table. And he wrote at the end of the list : There would be numerous necessaries in a household,</p><p>but how is it possible to mention all of them here? This is meant to be a list of the most required</p><p>things. </p><p>Imwon gyeongje ji, (an encyclopedia written by Seo Yugu in the late Joseon dynastry),</p><p>introduces the names and features of various utensils and pieces of furniture as living necessaries in</p><p>its Seomyongjiand Yiunjisections. </p><p>The Seomyongjisection covers a large number of wooden items such as gourd, bucket, sieve,</p><p>basket osier, barrel, noodle-making machine, rice-cake pattern, dasikpan (a board for pressing</p><p>patterns in small cake), dressing board, cake knife, dining table, plates (waeban or hwaban), trays,</p><p>picnic boxes, cane bowls, bamboo bowls, bamboo cases, baskets, rice bins, cupboard, coffer, and</p><p>grain chest as necessaries for cooking and kitchen work; such as clothes rack, bamboo sheath,</p><p>basket osier, suitcase, and clothes chest as necessaries for keeping clothes and other ornaments; and</p><p>such as washbasin, bathtub, comb holder, combs, and comb-cleaning pins as necessaries for</p><p>dressing and beauty. It also shows a bed and other bedding articles made of bamboo (such as</p><p>bamboo pillows and jukbuin). </p><p>Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 213</p><p>pieces of joinery to supply the demand from the country and royal families. </p><p>In the book, there is also a record showing that King Munjong said in May 1046 (the first year</p><p>of his reign) that all the gold and silver ornaments of the saddle and footboard his predecessor King</p><p>Danjong had used before death should be redecorated with bronze or iron. </p><p>In addition, Goryeosaintroduces various types of bowls, trays, tables, desks, cases, and</p><p>boxes, with many other wooden craft items such as sasang (a coffer for coronets), jeulsang,</p><p>gwansang, pilyeonan, and gosang, covering national ceremonies for ancestral rites in its 59th and</p><p>60the volumes, formalities of receiving foreign guests in its 65th volume, and royal ceremonies in</p><p>its 66th and 67th volumes. </p><p>The books 121st volume (in its Part 36 Juinwon) keeps a record of two bamboo vessels with</p><p>yellow hemp cloth, and the 129th volume writes in its Part 42 Choi Chungheon that Choi Yi set up</p><p>a desk in 1246 (the 33rd year of King Gojong), while giving a feast in honor of King Gojong. The</p><p>record of Jeonham joseong dogam (a government office) in Goryeosas 27th volume shows that</p><p>it was set up in March of the 13th year of King Wonjong and supports the presumption that it was a</p><p>provisional government office that produced gyeongham (book boxes), which are found in</p><p>America, Britain, and Holland, as well as Japan. </p><p>In the Prohibitory Decree 3 of its Part 39 The Criminal Law, the 85th volume writes that in</p><p>March 1391 (the 3rd year of his reign) King Gongyang accepted General Bang Sa Ryangs advice:</p><p>The use of copper and iron vessels and bowls should be prohibited and people should be forced to</p><p>use woodenware only so that their folkways could be corrected. </p><p>Goryeodogyeong (A Custom Guide of Goryeo)contains records of various woodenware</p><p>items: chairs in the Wangbupart of its 5th volume; plates and trays in the Sanwonpart of its</p><p>21st volume ; dressing boards in the Japsok Ipart of its 22nd volume and flat benches, chairs,</p><p>and small dressers in the Hangeumpart; bowls and porringers in the Japsok IIof its 23rd</p><p>volume; chairs in the Yeonuipart of its 26th volume and flat benches and small dressers in the</p><p>Hajeolseokpart; chairs in the Dohaljehalwipart of its 27th volume; chairs, couches, and red-</p><p>and black-lacquered dressers in its 28th volume; brushes in its 32nd volume; and small dining</p><p>t...</p></li></ul>