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  • Korean Wooden Crafts

    KimSamdaeja(VisitingProfessor,DepartmentofWoodworkingandFurnitureDesign,Hongik University)

    1. Introduction

    Woodcarving is a classical art form of creating handcrafted wood items. The pieces of

    woodcarving have been called Mokmul or Mokgi. The former represents all things made of wood,

    while the latter stands for household furniture made of wood in a broad sense, but only wooden

    kitchenware in a narrow sense.

    In Korea, abundant wood resources have been available from long time ago, as large parts of its

    territory are wooded, mountainous areas. People have built wooden houses to live in and used

    wood to make their utensils and work tools. According to Sinjeung-Dongguk-Yeojiseungram(a

    geography book compiled in 1530), there were mokgi stores that sold a variety of wooden products

    such as wooden platters, ssarinong, winnows, and chests. Among them, the most famous were

    Sang mokgi jeon located in front of government ministry buildings and Ha mokgi jeon in Ihyeon. In

    addition, there were specialized mokgi stores called Chil mokgi jeon around Hyogyeong gyo. They

    are known to have mainly handled wooden lacquerware, including wardrobes and paper cabinets.

    This suggests that the term mokgi was widely used at that time.

    However, mokgi burns well and is weak against humidity. Due to the lack of records about or

    remains of mokgi, its hardly possible to find out its types throughout the history at present. Most

    relics found in old tombs are Chilgi (lacquered ware). Speaking of pure mokgi, it seemed nothing

    has remained. Therefore, the types of mokgi in the past can be only estimated through chilgi. Most

    of the Moksim chilgi (wooden lacquerware) items found in tombs of the ancient Three Kingdoms

    are craftworks, which were used as household utensils in the upper-class families. In the Goryeo

    dynasty, the luxurious ceramic and bronze wares were substituted for mokgi. There were memorials

    to kings during the last years of the dynasty.

    In the Joseon dynasty, the royal families and the upper classes had the joiners, who were under

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 209

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    208 -

  • Chungdamsa Temple, and Pyohundaedeokparts; and a wooden table in its Seonyul

    Hwansaengpart. And the Gaya section of the same book, or Garakgukgi (Historical Records of

    the Gaya Kingdom), keeps a record of wooden chairs and tables used in the Silla Kingdom.

    Samguksagi (The History of the Three Kingdoms)includes records of a large chest in its Talhae

    Nisageumpart and a chair and stick in its King Munmupart.

    In the King Eujapart of Baekje Bongi (The Main History of Baekje), there is a record of

    desks used in the Baekje Kingdom. For the Goguryeo Kingdom, Samguksagirecords that people

    served a daughter of Habaek (a tribal god of Buyeo) and the kingdoms high-class god Jumong

    with their wooden figures.

    In relation to the management of trees and wood resources, Samguksagishows that the Silla

    Kingdom had eight government positions; Four of them were each titled Majeon (Jaeinbang),

    Gwegaejeon (Gwebanguk), Yangjeon (Sabunguk), and Chiljeon (Sikgibang).

    While mentioning the government positions of the Baekje Kingdom, the book also quotes

    Buksa (The Northern History)as saying that Baekje had the Ministry of Tree and Wood

    Resources among its 11 government branches.

    The mural paintings on the walls of Goguryeos tombs (such as Ssangyeongchong,

    Muyongchong, Sashinchong, and Gakjeochong) help us guess the living conditions of those times

    as they show wooden benches, chairs, and tables.

    Including plates, trays, quadrangular trays, and cups, some moksim chilgi articles made of

    aromatic trees were discovered in the Togwangmyo Tombs (wooden coffin tombs), which are

    estimated to have been built in the Baekje Dynasty around AD 300. For each of them, the outside

    surface has sawtoothed purple-lacquered bands on a black lacquer base, while the inside is black-

    lacquered overall.

    A pillow and footrest discovered in Munyeongwangneung (The Tomb of King Munyeong) are

    important cultural properties from which we can see Baekjes advanced crafts, at least partly.

    As examples of showing Sillas arts and crafts, a variety of wooden articles including cups,

    trays, plates, bowls, and other chilgi vessels were excavated from many tombs of the dynasty in

    Gyeongju; Kimgwanchong, Kimnyeongchong, Sikyichong, Seobongchong, Cheonmachong, and

    Hwangnamdaechong. And discovered in Anapji Pond were buckets and inkstones made with a

    hooked router and brass bowls and trays as moksim chilgi lacquerware.

    2) M o k m u l and mokgi of the Goryeo dynasty

    From Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo), we can see that joiners titled Somokjang made

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 211

    the control of central government, make mokgi and used it for banquets, religious rites, and rituals.

    The commers, on the contrary, made household wares for themselves or bought them from local

    handicraftsmen. The mountain village residents, above all, made most household wares by wood

    and even earned good money by selling them.

    After the restoration of national independence in 1945, a felling was strictly forbidden. Besides,

    our life pattern has changed with the passage of time. Therefore, mokgi has gradually disappeared

    in our daily life. Due to a wide use of veneer boards, especially, our traditional wood-product

    manufacturing crafts have even confronted with the crisis of severance.

    2. Woodcarving History

    Exactly when wooden craft items were first used in Korea is unknown, but judging from

    documentary records and excavated relics it dates back to at least the first century.

    According to the Dongi Yeoljeonof Huhanseo (a history book), Dongi (Koreans labeled as

    eastern bowmen or eastern barbarians) used bird heads as vessels; In Buyeo and Dong Okjeo,

    people used a long wooden receptacle when they held a funeral. It was as large as to accommodate

    other members of a family. A door was set up at one end of the receptacle so that the body could be

    put into it. A receptacle had wooden figures carved on as they were while in life and the number

    was the same as the number of bodies put in it.

    Excavated in 1988, the Daho-ri remains (1st~2nd century BC) of Changwon, Gyeongnam,

    included log coffins, bamboo boxes with grave goods, and moksim chilgi items (such as

    wonhyeongdu, banghyeongdu, and yugaetong).

    Until the chilgi items were discovered in the place, there had been a belief that Koreas chilgi

    culture was influenced by Nakrang. From the discovery, however, it has been verified that they had

    a Koreas own contemporary style different from Chinese lacquerware as their form proved to be

    similar to those of the black-colored Mumun-Togi (no-pattern earthenware) items: Duhyeong-Togi

    (mounted dish earthenware) and Tonghyeong-Togi (bamboo-shaped earthenware).

    1) M o k m u l and m o k g i of the Three Kingdoms and Silla dynasty

    The Silla section of Samgukyusa (The Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms)covers

    records about a large chest in its King Talhaepart; Sageumgapin its Tale of Sageumgap

    part; a wooden lion doll in its King Jijeungpart; a cherry barrel in its King Gyeongdeok,

    210 -

  • 3) M o k m u l and Mokgi of the Joseon dynasty

    Eo Deuk Gang (1470~1550), a civil minister in the Joseon dynasty, wrote 20 pieces of poetry

    with 20 utensils: coronet, band, shoes, pillow, bedding, curtain, clothes chest, clothes rack, pot,

    mirror, comb, ruler, seal, glass, geomungo, coffer, flat bench, sword, and folding screen. In his

    Jeungbo Sallimgyeongje(a revised and enlarged version of Sallimgyeongjeby Hong Man

    seon), Yu Jungrim emphasized the convenience and practicability of household necessaries by

    writing If you dont have anything of household necessaries, it will be difficult to borrow it from

    others whenever you need it. Therefore, you should prepare them one by one and step by step,

    focusing on their convenience and duration. In the book, he also listed many other required

    articles. As the list includes almost all living necessaries. It in itself is an important datum in

    understanding household effects of the times.

    As indoor woodenware is among them, the list covered a variety of kitchen utensils including

    barrel, bucket, mortar, pounder, gourd, container, cupboard, dresser, grain chest, tray, and plate;

    household furnishings for use in bedrooms and on the floor including basket, cabinet, chest of

    drawers, table, clothes chest, wardrobe, ruler, and comb box; and household goods for use at the

    male quarters called sarangchae including geomungo (a musical instrument), tungso (a musical

    instrument), desk, flat bed, armrest, safe, lamp, lantern, inkstone case, pencil vase, chair, bookcase,

    baduk board, basin, bamboo mat, rain shoes, cushion, mortar, mattress, candleholder, desk, and

    table. And he wrote at the end of the list : There would be numerous necessaries in a household,

    but how is it possible to mention all of them here? This is meant to be a list of the most required

    things.

    Imwon gyeongje ji, (an encyclopedia written by Seo Yugu in the late Joseon dynastry),

    introduces the names and features of various utensils and pieces of furniture as living necessaries in

    its Seomyongjiand Yiunjisections.

    The Seomyongjisection covers a large number of wooden items such as gourd, bucket, sieve,

    basket osier, barrel, noodle-making machine, rice-cake pattern, dasikpan (a board for pressing

    patterns in small cake), dressing board, cake knife, dining table, plates (waeban or hwaban), trays,

    picnic boxes, cane bowls, bamboo bowls, bamboo cases, baskets, rice bins, cupboard, coffer, and

    grain chest as necessaries for cooking and kitchen work; such as clothes rack, bamboo sheath,

    basket osier, suitcase, and clothes chest as necessaries for keeping clothes and other ornaments; and

    such as washbasin, bathtub, comb holder, combs, and comb-cleaning pins as necessaries for

    dressing and beauty. It also shows a bed and other bedding articles made of bamboo (such as

    bamboo pillows and jukbuin).

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 213

    pieces of joinery to supply the demand from the country and royal families.

    In the book, there is also a record showing that King Munjong said in May 1046 (the first year

    of his reign) that all the gold and silver ornaments of the saddle and footboard his predecessor King

    Danjong had used before death should be redecorated with bronze or iron.

    In addition, Goryeosaintroduces various types of bowls, trays, tables, desks, cases, and

    boxes, with many other wooden craft items such as sasang (a coffer for coronets), jeulsang,

    gwansang, pilyeonan, and gosang, covering national ceremonies for ancestral rites in its 59th and

    60the volumes, formalities of receiving foreign guests in its 65th volume, and royal ceremonies in

    its 66th and 67th volumes.

    The books 121st volume (in its Part 36 Juinwon) keeps a record of two bamboo vessels with

    yellow hemp cloth, and the 129th volume writes in its Part 42 Choi Chungheon that Choi Yi set up

    a desk in 1246 (the 33rd year of King Gojong), while giving a feast in honor of King Gojong. The

    record of Jeonham joseong dogam (a government office) in Goryeosas 27th volume shows that

    it was set up in March of the 13th year of King Wonjong and supports the presumption that it was a

    provisional government office that produced gyeongham (book boxes), which are found in

    America, Britain, and Holland, as well as Japan.

    In the Prohibitory Decree 3 of its Part 39 The Criminal Law, the 85th volume writes that in

    March 1391 (the 3rd year of his reign) King Gongyang accepted General Bang Sa Ryangs advice:

    The use of copper and iron vessels and bowls should be prohibited and people should be forced to

    use woodenware only so that their folkways could be corrected.

    Goryeodogyeong (A Custom Guide of Goryeo)contains records of various woodenware

    items: chairs in the Wangbupart of its 5th volume; plates and trays in the Sanwonpart of its

    21st volume ; dressing boards in the Japsok Ipart of its 22nd volume and flat benches, chairs,

    and small dressers in the Hangeumpart; bowls and porringers in the Japsok IIof its 23rd

    volume; chairs in the Yeonuipart of its 26th volume and flat benches and small dressers in the

    Hajeolseokpart; chairs in the Dohaljehalwipart of its 27th volume; chairs, couches, and red-

    and black-lacquered dressers in its 28th volume; brushes in its 32nd volume; and small dining

    tables and trays in its 33rd volume.

    The Goryeo dynasty had Dogyoseo and Gongjoseo as government bodies related to woodcraft.

    Dogyoseo kept craftsmen to take responsible for woodworking. It was also called Jajakguk and

    later absorbed into Seongongsi. Gongjoseo took in joiners and craftsmen called Majang who

    engaged in making wooden tools and ornaments for Kings. It had been also called Jungsangseo

    before it had the name Gongjoseo.

    212 -

  • Seongonggam was responsible for timbering and maintenance works; and Gongjoseo took charge

    of bamboo works.

    On April 10 of the 15th year of King Taejong, 100 skilled carpenters were selected and enrolled

    on the artisans list by the instruction of Seongonggam. They were the first to Gyeonggongjang

    (artisans who provided the necessary products to the royal family and the central government

    offices). On April 28th, the 7th reign of King Sejong, the government announced that due to lack of

    artisans in Gongjo, the vacancy was filled up by the commoners provided that they were qualified.

    If they were not skilled, they could be chosen as an apprentice. Then, when they were well ready

    and a vacancy occurred, they filled up the vacancy.

    In the 16th year of King Sejong, the government approved the request (the increase of staff

    from 9 to 11). In the early stage of King Sejong, the artisans who took care of important jobs such

    as type casting were paid family support allowance by the month. Based on the level of their

    achievement, they were hired to (Seobangunjik, a government position) and got tax benefits. The

    government officers who mistreated them were even punished. However, Byeongjo (Ministry of

    National Defense) and Uijeongbu (State Council) pointed out that the appointment was wrong.

    Furthermore, to commemorate the recovery of the Crown Princes disease, many people were hired

    to government positions. However, Cheongu (the commoners) and artisans were excluded. In

    December, the first year of King Munjong, the artisans in Gongjo asked for Chaeajik

    (administrative office position), but the King rejected their request.

    On August 1 of the 6th year of the King Sejo, there were 21 joiners in Byeongjo and 100

    carpenters in Seongonggam. In the 16th year of King Seongjong (1474), According to the Artisan

    part of Gyeonggukdaejeon (The Grand Code for State Administration), however, the artisans

    names in outside of the capital were registered and stored in Gongjo and subordinate government

    offices. It said, Gyeonggongjang worked in Seoul, and Oegongjang (artisans who provided the

    necessary products to the local government offices) worked in local regions. In order to meet the

    demand for industrial products, there were a total of 72 woodenware artisans in each government

    department: 4 in Gungisa (arsenal department), 2 in Goseogwan, 60 in Seongonggam, 2 in Jojiseo,

    and 4 in Gwihuseo. There also were 323 Oegongjang: 37 in Gyeonggi-do, 56 in Chungcheong-do,

    69 in Gyeongsang-do, 59 in Jeolla-do, 28 in Gangwon-do, 26 Hwanghae-do, 22 Yeongan-do, 26

    Pyeongan-do.

    In April of the 32nd year of the King Jungjong, the propagation said, Sejong dynasty

    encouraged all artisans to be more focused on their arts. A law was enacted to support them.

    Because Yusa (office administrative duty) hadnt properly been conducted, many fields of arts

    disappeared. There has left nearly only one artisan in each field. In order to make each artisan to

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 215

    And included as items necessary for sitting are chairs, backrests, yeongwe (desks), tables, and

    other woodenware items. Yiunjicovers various items for sitting such as chairs, stools, and

    backrests and food bowls and vessels such as chanhap, jukbal, and hyangyeonban.

    In addition, this book introduces inkstone cases, small folding screens, an paper cases as

    Munbangaje items; desks, chairs, lamps, stationary cases, and bookshelves as Seolsiljapgi items;

    and seoju, paper cases, and mokgap (wooden cases) as Doseojangbang items.

    Not to mention, plate items called waeban or hwaban were imported from Japan and China or

    made under the influence of those countries. Imwon-gyeongje-ji suggests that as seen in

    Mokminsimseoby Jeong Yakyong and as it includes Chinese and Japanese books in its

    bibliography, there was some influence of China and Japan on Korean woodenware crafts.

    In its Baktaryeong (A Song of the Gourd)part, Heungboga (The Song of Heungbo)makes

    mention of almost all household furnishings including room utensils, kitchenware, barn appliances,

    farming tools, weaving instruments, etc. Among them, woodenware items are as follows : Included

    as main-room utensils are chests of drawers (single, double, and triple), jadeuri cases (three-storied

    and five-storied), paper cabinet, mother-of-pearl case, rice chest, apdaji, dressing table, comb rack,

    workbasket, blanket chest, shelf, clothes rack, and folding screens; included as guest room

    furnishings are stationary chest, desk, gakkesuri(a wooden safe), pillow, chanhap (a nest of boxes),

    and bookcase; and included as kitchenware items are soban(a small dining table), moban, chaeban

    (a vessel), basket, hamji (a basin), and hambak (a large basin).

    3. Social Status of Joiners and Transmission of Joinery Techniques

    According to Minseo (vol. 19 of Goryeodogyeong: a collection of records taken by

    Seogeung from the Song Dynasty about his journey to Goryeo), due to thick forest and a lack of

    arable land, peasants were way behind of artisans. In Gonggi, its said, The Goryeo artisans are

    highly skilled so that they are under the protection of the central government. According to the

    Jaeamungongjangbyeolsapart of Goryeosa (a chronological history of the Goryeo dynasty),

    joiners who worked for more than 300 days were paid 10, 20, or 30 rice bags depending on their

    social status. As shown above, in Goryeo dynasty, all talented artisans were belonged to a

    government organization. Because they were better off than peasantry, they could produce

    masterpieces.

    The Joseon dynasty also set up several woodworking-related government offices such as

    Gongjo, Seongonggam, Gongjoseo, etc. Gongjo took care of craftwork and construction affairs;

    214 -

  • village houses or making pieces of furniture for families with a wedding occurring. When there was

    no order with them, they even wandered about the country with a tool bag to work.

    In Imwon-gyeongje-jipublished in the early 19th century, 1108 markets in the countrys eight

    provinces are named. Among them, 164 markets are mentioned with lists of their dealt-in goods,

    including more than 80 markets that carried woodenware products.

    After public offices under the control of Uijeongbu (State Council) were reorganized on June

    28 of the 31st year of King Gojong, the General Affairs Bureau came to oversee artisans and

    craftsmen, compile a list of their names, and invited engineers to learn Japanese techniques and

    skills. Consequently, Koreas traditional framing technique (called jjaim) began to disappear little

    by little.

    Only a small number of Korean woodcarving artisans and craftsmen have barely kept traditions

    of Korean woodcarving in existence, experiencing the rapid inflow of Western culture and the

    outbreak of Korean War. They have trained their successors in the way of taking as their

    apprentices children who want to learn their skills and in the way of initiating them into their skills.

    Those apprentices have to work for several years in order to master their employers craft and

    skills. They cant set up for themselves until they have obtained recognition of their skills.

    After the restoration of independence in 1945, the Korean Government has designated initiators

    of cultural traditions in each area of arts and crafts as intangible cultural properties.

    Since 1975 when the government designated a holder of joinery as No. 55 Intangible Cultural

    Property, some apprentices have obtained recognition for learning joinery skills and techniques as

    assistants and many universities have opened woodcarving-related departments to train

    woodworking designers.

    4. Conclusion

    The pieces of traditional woodcarving are very solid and strong specially made based on

    traditional crafts without using a nail. The texture of wood comes alive and their simple design

    draws an everlasting attention. Above all, their perfectly balanced and harmonized shape and the

    exquisite beauty of the grain of wood even make them more distinctive. However, only few pieces

    still hold this kind of magnificence. Most masterpieces have already been taken out abroad, or even

    if they are in the country, the general public and the joiners can hardly see them because they are

    displayed in a museum or confined in a chest of wood-piece collectors.

    To grow into a fine woodcarving artisan, tens of painful apprentice years must be gone through

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 217

    focus on his duty, the field and the number of art crafts were tried to be expanded. But, it didnt go

    well.

    On May 29 of the 3rd year of the King Injo, its said that the record on artisans and soldiers

    were of no use.

    On August 18 of the 5th year of the King Gwanghaegun, Saheonbu (Ministry of Justice)

    submitted a petition in order to reduce the village residents damage and correct an abusive slave

    labor: Tongjeyeong (in charge of naval forces) was set up to defend coastal area. However, as an

    excuse of manufacturing war weapons, highly skilled artisans are gathered. They are trying to

    restore their fame by bribing others. The fact that the industrial arts have been produced in

    Tongjeyeong can also be referred in the Jangjakpart, vol 6 of Mokminsimseo. It says, Lee Suil

    became a Tongjesa (a top admiral of navy). The ex-admirals had artisans always make weird and

    wild things and served the high and mighty. They over-calculated the cost. Chengbisokrokalso

    supports the fact that the industrial arts have originated from Tongyeong.

    According to a record, on March 23 of the 9th year of King Gwanghaegun, Seonsudogam (a

    government office) told to the king that it couldnt find skilled craftsmen or artisans in Seoul, as

    most of them had been forced to work for Sadaebu (literati and high officials). A record dated May

    26 of the 10th year of King Gwanghaegun says that as Yeonggeondogam (a government office)

    even had provided its artisans or craftsmen to people for their private use, the king ordered that such

    informal transaction should be under strict control. Those records indicate that, due to a significant

    demand for artisans and craftsmen, there were frequent corruptions or scandals where they were

    involved.

    Afterwards, the number of artisans belonging to the government was gradually decreased.

    According to the records in the book, when Sokdaejeon(The Canon of Regulations) was

    compiled in the 22nd year of King Yeongjos reign, outside public artisans could not be found

    anywhere. Furthermore, at that time when Daejeontongpyeon(The Comprehensive National

    Code) was being written in the 10th year of King Jeongjo, Qwihuseo (a government office) was

    abolished as part of reformation. This means that there was a considerable decrease in the number

    of wood craftsmen and artisans in Seoul as well.

    Some of wood craftsmen in Seoul could amass wealth by selling their works in the market

    while working for the families of ministers and high-profile officials. In the late 18th century, they

    could run their own woodenware stores such as chilmokgi-jeon or mokgi-jeon, which dealt in

    various woodenware items including chests of drawers, cabinets, dining tables, and vessels.

    However, the number of those successful craftsmen was very small. Most of other artisans,

    especially public craftsmen in areas outside Seoul, maintained their livelihood doing carpentry for

    216 -

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 219

    in advance. Besides, even though the tough period has successfully passed, a bright future would

    still not be guaranteed. Today, therefore, no one is willing to take the risk.

    Like all the other goods, woodcarving products are also under the influence of market

    mechanism in which supply and demand operate in harmony. The artisans exquisite crafts should

    also be considered in the market operation. Once an optimal price is determined, the woodcarving

    industry could move forward smoothly.

    There have been some carpenters who are not economically difficult. However, they are only

    those who took care of the relics in museum or had an overseas exhibition with government support

    in the past.

    Even though they are highly qualified, most craftsmen have failed to create the masterpieces

    because they have never actually seen them.

    This stage performance-based traditional woodcarving exhibition could be a momentum to

    make the public feel and realize the essence of Korean traditional woodcarving. Furthermore, the

    museum researchers and the joiners could get closer and more closely cooperated with each other.

    under this favorable atmosphere, the woodcarving industry including museum exhibition, social

    education, and joiners woodcarving job could gradually develop into a bright future.

    218 -

    Reference

    Goryeosa(AChronologicalHistoryoftheGoryeoDynasty)MokminsimseoSamguksagi(TheHistoryoftheThreeKingdoms)Joseonwangjosillok(AnnalsoftheJoseonDynasty)Yongjechonghwa(Documentinthefieldsofpolitics,society,system,andculture)Jeungbosallimgyeongje(Abookofcultivation)Imwongyeongjeji(Abookofdailylife)Goryeodogyeong(AcollectionofrecordsfromtheSongdynastyabouthisjourneytoGoryeo)

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  • An Analysis of the Shapes of Traditional Wooden Furniture and the Form Classification by Regional Groups Centered on Chests and Dining TablesKimHeesoo(Curator,TheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea)

    1. Bandaji

    Bandaji is a piece of multi-functional furniture that was loved by people most among the

    traditional cabinets. Its front is divided into two parts and the top half is designed to open and close.

    The reason why this chest is called Bandaji (the Korean word Ban means half, and Daji

    means closing) is that only the half is opened and closed. In some areas, it is opened and closed

    forward so it is called Apdaji (the Korean word Ap means fore) too.

    The structure of Bandaji is divided into two main parts: body and legs. For the body, ceiling

    panel, front board, side board, bottom board, and door panel are reinforced by feldspar after being

    put together. The inside of this structure is mostly empty to be available as cabinet, but depending

    on a users need, a drawer or a shelf can be added to it.

    In consideration of the functional aspect, each connection of the woods is strongly reinforced by

    feldspar. The feldspar is an important factor to highlight not only the functional aspects of Bandaji,

    but also the aesthetic aspects. Therefore, unlike the feldspars used for other types of furniture, the

    feldspar for Bandaji has various shapes with a meaning of decoration. It is difficult to find a

    Bandaji of the same size and shape because craftsmens skills and regional characteristics allow the

    design to be varied.

    The shape of Bandaji in the Joseon dynasty was settled after going through repetitive

    modifications and transformations. It was not made on the basis of certain specifications, so this

    paper intends to systematically analyze the structure and the manufacturing techniques based on

    changes in shape, centering on the relics owned by the National Folk Museum of Korea and on the

    data obtained from field studies. Specifically, it has studied the form of the front side, the structure

    of door panels, the form of legs, and the internal structure, and also examined the characteristics of

    design elements of feldspars. Based on this analysis, it has worked on form classes by regional

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 229228 -

  • The plank type is made of 20 ~ 30 mm thick boards, and most commonly found around us. The

    frame type of door panel was created for a larger Bandaji, which intends to prevent the door panels

    distortion and considers aesthetic aspects. Boards are added to two or four sides of the door panel.

    Various joining techniques are used for this type like edge-bonding, dovetailing, halving, and

    clamping. In quite large Bandaji of frame type, door panels made in the form of center board,

    baluster, and raised panel are often found.

    Form of legs

    Legs of bandaji work as functional (considering ventilation between the body and the floor of

    the Korean under-floor heating system) and decorative factor. These factors make different shapes

    of leg. The legs are classified into Jokdae type, Madae type, and monolithic type.

    Jokdae type is most general. The legs of square or rectangular timber are attached to the body.

    Madae type is usually seen in closets or clothes-boxes, in which the legs and the body are separable,

    but sometimes the legs are fixed to the body. Monolithic type is that four boards (front, back, left and

    right) and legs are made into one. That is, side boards, front board and back board come down to the

    floor and play a role of legs. Otherwise, both side boards are lengthened to play a role of legs.

    Internal structure

    The internal structure is changeable subject to a users application and contents to be kept. It is

    classified into nothing-type, shelf-type, drawer-type and papeterie-type. Nothing-type is most

    general. There is nothing inside of bandaji. On the other hand, the shelf-type, the drawer-type and

    the papeterie-type were mostly used in rooms in order to keep valuables, documents or other small

    items in. The shelf-type has one or two-staged shelf on the top of the inside. The drawer-type has a

    drawer on the top or the lower part below the shelf. The papeterie type has both shelf and drawer. It

    was mostly used in a detached living room for important documents/items or stationary. It is often

    seen in the areas of Jeollado.

    2) Form Classes by Regional Groups

    The fledspar of bandaji becomes an important factor for classification by regional groups.

    Basically, how to join the woods and manufacturing techniques are slightly different by region, but

    the basic manufacturing method is same so it is unreasonable to use the manufacturing method as

    the standards for classification by region. This study has classified the form of bandaji based on the

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 231

    groups. The terminology and names used for analysis and form classes have been arbitrarily named

    by the researcher.1)

    1) Analysis of the Shapes of Bandaji

    Craftsmens manufacturing skills, users needs and size, and popularity of a region are factors

    making changes in the shapes of Bandaji. And these have influence on the form of the front side,

    the structure of the door panel, the form of legs, and the internal structure.

    Form of front side

    The front side of Bandaji can be classified into various types: general, shingle, framed,

    partitioned, and complex. The general type is most popular. Its front side is composed of front

    board and door panel. The front board and the door panel are made of plank. In case of the shingle

    type, the ceiling board is a little more projected than side boards, which are similar with the upper

    part of closet. For the framed type, the front board and door panel are inserted into each board of the

    body so it looks like a frame. In case of other types of Bandaji, when Bandaji is seen in front, side

    boards, top board and bottom board get hidden by the front side so they are invisible. However, in

    case of the framed type, a section of the board covers the front board and the door panel, so the

    section of the body looks like a frame. In case of the partitioned type, the front side is partitioned

    into center board, baluster, and raised panel, so it is very similar with the front side of a closet. Its

    formative art is excellent and the raised panels of wainscoted walls can be used as a drawer for

    keeping small items. It seems that this type was made as Bandaji was changed into closet. The

    complex type is a mixture of Bandaji and closet. The upper and lower door panels have half of one

    side hinged, or the upper door panel has all of one side hinged while the lower door panel has half

    of one side hinged. It is essential that the door panel forms a double-tiered structure.

    Structure of door panel

    The structure of door panel is closely related with the size of Bandaji. For a larger Bandaji,

    different manufacturing techniques are used to prevent the door panels distortion. Based on the

    factors of structural changes, the door panel is classified into plank type and frame type (two-side

    reinforced or four-side reingorced).

    230 -

    1) KimHee-SooandKimSam-Gi, UnderstandingofFolkRelicsI-WoodenFurniture, 2003.Basedon56piecesofrelicsownedbytheNationalFolkMuseumofKoreaand35piecesstudiedinthefield,theshapeshavebeenanalyzedandtheformshavebeenclassifiedbyregion.

  • Gangwondo bandaji

    Gangwondo Bandaji has a framed type of front side that door panel is inserted into the body

    like a frame. Gangwondo is mountainous, so Bandaji is used as closet or clothes-box. It is quite

    high and large. Mostly it has drawers in it. Pine tree is used and thick iron feldspar is used. The

    feldspar is composed of three hinges and three bellybutton ornaments below the hinges. The second

    hinge is in the shape of gourd bottle and the first and the third hinge are in the shape of plants and

    Jebichori (hairs protruded on the front brow or the back of the head). The front ground is overall in

    the shape of Jebichori and geometric designs of constellations are pierced into it. The appearance of

    Gwangdujeong (nail whose nailhead is round and flat) is a flower design and its inside is round-

    carved in relief. The quantity of feldspars used is not many, but they are big and roughly processed.

    Chungcheongdo bandaji

    It is difficult to point out the characteristics of Chungcheongdo Bandaji. Overall, a small

    number of feldspars are used and the hinge is in the shape of a little wide Jebichori (hairs protruded

    on the front brow or the back of the head). Bandaji whose ceiling board is wider than side board,

    and a mixture of bookshelf and bandaji are often found in Chungcheongdo.

    In Chungcheongdo, hinges in the shape of petal (available in Jeonbuk area) and of Jebichori

    (available in Mungyeong or Sangju) are often found. In the northern part of Chungcheongdo,

    Bandaji of framed type is sometimes available.

    Gyeongsangdo bandaji

    The areas in Gyeongsangdo that the name of bandaji is often used are Yecheon, Sangju,

    Andong, Gyeongju (these four areas are in the northern part of Gyeongsangdo), Milyang, Yangsan,

    Eonyang, Gimhae, Jinju, Tongyoung, and Namhae (these areas are in the southern part or the

    coast). However, Bandaji was not produced and distributed only in a particular area so it is not well

    known and instead, there are only some differences by region.

    In general, Bandaji of Gyeongsangdo is lowest compared with that of other areas. That is, the

    width is larger than the height so it looks low. In case of the feldspar, the lower part of the front

    ground becomes slowly wider than the upper, and the lower part has splendid piercing of cicada,

    owl or bat. It also has the design of or modified a lot.

    In the northern part like Andong and Gyeongju, the feldspar is simplified. Hinge and front

    ground are often in the shape of Jebichori (hairs protruded on the front brow or the back of the

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 233

    design elements of feldspar that show regional characteristics.

    In the feldspar, there are hinge (connecting the body and the door panel), handle (used to lift and

    move Bandaji), large metal staple (reinforcing connections of woods or edges), corner-ornament

    (protecting the corners and reinforcing connections), Gwangdujeong (nail whose nailhead is round

    and flat, and which has decorative effects and functional effect), front ground (metal for the front of

    Bandaji to prevent any damage caused by lock or hook), and bellybutton-ornament. Designs or

    shapes of the feldspar were special by region so the shapes and designs tell the characteristics of each

    region. Based on this, this paper has classified bandaji into 7 regional groups - Pyeongando,

    Gyeonggido, Gangwondo, Chungcheongdo, Gyeongsangdo, Jeollado and Jejudo.

    Pyeongando bandaji

    Pyeongando Bandaji is a representative bandaji in the areas of North Korea. It is large. On the

    front of the feldspar, small geometric designs are precisely and repeatedly pierced, which is the

    reason why Pyeongando Bandaji is called, Soong-soong-e (empty) Bandaji. Various designs are

    splendidly carved on it. Many of Pyeongando Bandaji were produced in the area of Bakcheon so it

    is known as Bakcheon Bandaji. Square, round and oval types of geometric designs are regularly

    repeatedly pierced into feldspar. Piercing is precise. There are many feldspars used, which are big

    so the feldspars cover more than half of bandaji. Suitably for the large size, a functional feldspar

    like handle is solidly made. Linden tree is mostly used.

    Gyeonggido bandaji

    In Gyeonggido, Ganghwado, Gaeseong, and Namhansanseong are famous for Bandaji. It is not

    easy to point out the characteristics of bandaji by each area, and also it is difficult to give a

    particular geographical name to Bandaji. Therefore, this paper will talk about the characteristics of

    Gyeonggido Bandaji in overall.

    Gyeonggido Bandaji has many of hinges (in the shape of gourd bottle), bellybutton-ornaments

    with realistic designs of animal and plants, and bronze feldspar. A mixture type of bandaji and

    closet is often found in Gyeonggido. However, bandaji from Ganghwado is much different from

    Gyeonggidos. First, Ganghwado Bandaji has its own iron feldspar. Several of the same-shaped

    iron feldspar are used and the letter of is pierced a lot. Bbeotchimdae (long metal bar like a

    handle) is attached to the front corner of the ceiling board. The legs are Madae type - the legs and

    the body are separable, but sometimes, the legs are fixed to the body - and the height of Punghyeol

    (small ornaments around Bandaji) is low.

    232 -

  • 2. Soban (Dining Table)

    Soban is a representative kitchenware that shows a section of the Korean sedentary living style.

    Soban is a small table to carry tableware or to eat food. Unlike other furniture, it was a living

    necessity widely used regardless of the social class. It works not only as a tray to carry tableware

    from the kitchen to a detached or main living room, but also as a table used in a room. In the

    traditional Korean housing system, unlike the western style, people had to carry cooked food to a

    room for eating so Soban played two roles of a tray and a table.

    The material for soban had to be light enough for a woman to carry, together with food.

    Gingko tree, pine tree, zelkova tree, maple tree, jujube tree, and linden tree are used. Especially,

    gingko tree is light and strong against humidity so it is less distorted. Therefore, it is most suitable

    for Soban. Zelkova tree which has beautiful grain and pine tree which is easy to get are often used.

    Soban is painted for water-proof.

    1) Analysis of the Shapes of Soban and Form Class by Regional

    Groups

    Soban is composed of top plate, legs, cloud-shaped carvings, middle stool, and footstool. How

    to join and connect the legs and the top plate, or the legs and the middle stool, and the type of legs

    are the most important factors in analyzing the form of soban. Centering on the relics owned by the

    National Folk Museum of Korea, this paper has classified Soban into Haeju type, Tongyoung type

    and Naju type according to the regional characteristics based on manufacturing techniques. For

    other types of soban that dont belong to any of the above types, it has classified into Iljuban with

    only one post and polygonal Dagakban (which is polygonal).2)

    Haeju soban

    The legs of Haeju Soban consist of wood engravings, on which the designs of fret, lotus flower,

    bat, vine and are carved, so they are remarkable in terms of decoration. For the top plate, thick

    plank is bored so the rim and the plate are in one. Four rectangular edges are curved smoothly. The

    legs are attached to the ends of the left and the right under the top plate in the type of Jumekojang.

    The top plate is grooved in order for the legs to be inserted into, and the rest of the grooves on the

    plate are finished with square timber.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 235

    head). Bandaji found in Sangju is that the door panel is inserted into the body, which is similar with

    that of Gangwondo.

    In Chungmu, Tongyoung, and Jinju, the front ground and the hinge have a design of owl or

    cicada, and the front ground has an ornament of handle. In Jinju, the handle-type of bellybutton

    ornament which is big and decorative is hung on the diamond-shaped ground.

    Bandaji of Milyang has four or two hinges which are long and have lots of piercing. Precise

    piercing and strong iron hinge are strengths of Milyang Bandaji. The design of is often used on

    the front ground and the large metal staple.

    Bandaji of Namhae has a design of Taegeuk on the upper part of the hinge, and piercing of the

    Chinese letter on the front ground.

    Jeollado bandaji

    Jeollado can be divided into two parts: southern coastal area and the neighborhood of Gwangju

    like Naju, Younggwang, Hampyeong, Damyang, and Jeonju. In the southern coastal areas, the

    feldspar is large and its shape is like a pair of Korean socks or spool. The top and the bottom are

    symmetrical. The large metal staple of pomegranate shape is a characteristic of this area. Bandaji of

    the southern coastal area is very similar with that of Jejudo.

    On the other hand, bandajis of Gwangju, Naju and Jeonju have simplified the feldspar. The

    quantity of the feldspars used has been minimized only for essentially necessary functions. The

    front ground of lotus flower shape and the hinge (usually 2 hinges used) of Jebichori (hairs

    protruded on the front brow or the back of the head) shape are the characteristics of this area. The

    inside of bandaji has a drawer and a shelf to reinforce the storage function. In Jangseong,

    Younggwang and Naju, the top and the bottom of the body are occluded for joining, and the front

    and the back are joined in the type of Jumeokjangsagae. They are joined closely.

    Jejudo bandaji

    The feldspar of Jejudo Bandaji is similar with that of the southern coastal area of Jeollanamdo.

    It, made of zelkova tree, is roughly designed. The surface of the wood is roughly processed to have

    sawing or adze-wielding traces. The front ground and the hinge are in the shape of the Korean

    socks end or Jebichori (hairs protruded on the front brow or the back of the head). The upper of

    the hinge and the large metal staple have a design of pomegranate realistically expressed. For the

    metal staple, the design of the letter or pomegranate is repeatedly used for the bottom and the

    side of the front.

    234 -

    2) Basedon35piecesofrelicsownedbytheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea,theshapeshavebeenanalyzedandtheformshavebeenclassifiedbyregion.

  • Iljuban (a table with one post) and Dagakban (a polygonal table)

    Iljuban is that the center of the top plate is supported by one post. The lower part of the legs

    have 4 props of foot which are crossed. Iljuban is small, so it is good for side dishes for liquor or

    fruits. The post between the top plate and the feet is carved like twisted thread, and on the feet, the

    design of lotus stalk or lotus vine is carved. In some cases, the top plate of iljuban is made to rotate.

    In case of Dagakban, its top plate and legs are polygonal. Sometimes, the top plate is round.

    Beonsang a (table to carry food for a family member on duty) and Gonggosang a (table used to

    carry out food to a family member working outside) have round top plate. They were functional

    tables made to carry food on the head to government officers who were boarding and lodging in a

    government office or a royal palace. In order to get sight when carrying the table on the head, a hole

    was made, which is the biggest feature of Dagakban. However, in case of Gonggosang, in the

    meantime, wood engravings have gone up higher and the hole for sight has been changed into a

    decorative function. There are An sang (eye-shape) design, square design and round design, and the

    letter of and the Seven Treasures design are carved. Sometimes it has a drawer to keep spoons

    and chopsticks.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 237

    Wood engraving gets wider from the top to the bottom in consideration of weight distribution

    and visual stability. Cloud-shaped carvings connect two legs to strongly fix them. The same wood

    is used for the legs and the top plate. Ginkgo tree, wild walnut, linden tree and pine tree are used.

    Bamboo nails are used. Soban available in Gangwondo is similar with that of Haeju in terms of the

    structure of the legs, the method of connecting the legs to the plate, and the overall shape. However,

    Gangwondo Soban has simple wood engravings compared with splendid engravings of Haeju

    Soban.

    Tongyoung soban

    Tongyoung Soban has the top plate and the rim in one, which is same as Haeju Soban.

    Tongyoung Soban which has succeeded to the reputation of soban for long, together with Naju

    Soban has clear characteristics in terms of the structure of the legs, wood engraving, and the

    method of connecting the legs and the plate.

    First of all, the top plate is grooved and the legs are directly connected to it, which is different

    from Naju Soban. The upper middle stool and the lower middle stool that connect the legs are put

    up and down, which is a characteristic of Tongyoung Soban. The top plate made of zelkova tree

    and gingko tree is evaluated best. Linden tree is sometimes used. For the legs, wood engravings,

    and middle stool, pine tree and zelkova tree are used. In Tongyoung, lacquer ware is developed so

    Tongyoung Soban is excellent at paint-finishing which is the key point of Soban. Sipjangsaeng (The

    Ten Immortals), mythical peach that is said to grow in Heaven, clouds, crane, and the letter of

    made of mother-of-pearl are laid in the legs and the top plate.

    Naju soban

    Naju Soban is different from that of Tongyoung in that a rim is separately made to be attached

    to the top plate. This method heightens use of woods and prevents the top plate from being distorted

    so large sizes of soban can be made. Therefore, the rim of Naju Soban is thicker than that of other

    regions. Cloud-shaped carvings are inserted into the legs from the top in the method of halving, and

    then, joined with the top plate in the method of clamping, which is to prevent the plate from being

    distorted. Mostly it doesnt have middle stool or has one around the top of the legs. The legs are

    mostly cylinder type, but there are some legs in the shapes of animals like tiger, horse, or dog.

    The top plate made of gingko tree is regarded best, and walnut tree, pear tree, paulownia tree,

    zelkova tree, linden tree and wild walnut tree are used too. For the legs, willow or pine tree is used.

    Naju Soban is simple unlike Tongyoung Soban and Haeju Soban that are splendid.

    236 -

  • Reference

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    EwhaWomensUniversityPress,1998.JeongDaeyoung ChestofKorea ,Donginbang,1993.ChoiSoon-WooandParkYounggyu PaintedWoodenFurnitureofKorea ,GyeongmiPublishing,1981.AsakawaDaggumi SobanofJoseon-JoseonDojaMyeongGo ,Hakgojae,1991.KimHeesooandKimSamgi UnderstandingofFolkRelicsI-WoodenFurniture ,

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    MastersThesisforDongaUniversity,1994.ParkMyeongdoh TransmissionandChangeoftheSemanticSystemofTraditional

    CraftDesign ,MastersThesisforKyungpookNationalUniversity,1991.

    BaeMansil AStudyofWoodenFurnitureoftheLatterTermofJoseonDynasty ,DoctorsThesisforEwhaWomensUniversity,1974.

    SeoHyoseok AStudyofMetalOrnamentsforWoodenCraftsinJoseonDynasty ,MastersThesisforKeimyungUniversity,1983.

    SohnJiin Soban inPaintingsandWritingsofJoseonDynasty ,MastersThesisforSeoulNationalUniversity,1999.

    YoonGeun AStudyofBandajiinJoseonDynasty-CenteringonMetalOrnamentandDesign ,MastersThesisforChung-AngUniversity,1976.

    LeeYeseon AnAnalysisoftheShapesofDesignElementsofBandaji inJoseonDynasty ,MastersThesisforYonseiUniversity,1993.

    LeeJeongsaeng AStudyofSobaninJoseonDynasty ,MastersThesisforDongaUniversity,1985.

    LeeHaemuk AStudyofRegionalCharacteristicsofBandaji(Forward-OpeningandClosingBox)inJoseonDynasty ,MastersThesisforHongikUniversity,1978.

    HuhMiyoung AStudyofBandaji inJeollado ,MastersThesisforChonbukNationalUniversity,1993.

    ReportKohDohim AStudyofRealConditionsofMainRoomUseandFurnitureinFolkVillage

    atOiamri,Chungnam ,On-CampusResearchThesisfortheCatholicUniversityofKorea,1988.

    KimJeonggeunandHongHyeongok ChangesintheHouseholdNecessitiesandFurnitureforWeddingI-FromtheAncientTimestoJoseonDynasty ,IssueNo.1,Vol.34oftheKoreanHomeEconomicsAssociationJournal,1996.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 239

    5) Comparison of the characteristics of Soban by regional groups

    238 -

    Item HaejuSoban TongyoungSoban NajuSoban

    Topplate

    - A plank is bored out to makea rim.

    - Four edges are slightlycurved to be rhombic.

    - Gingko tree, wild walnut,linden tree and pine tree areused.

    - A plank is bored out to makea rim.

    - The top plate is decoratedwith mother-of-pearl of goodquality.

    Called Jagaeban (tabledecorated with mother-of-pearl), it is designed withlucky-physiognomies,mythic peach that is saidto grow in Heaven, clouds,crane, Sibjangsaeng (10natural things with longestlifetime).

    - Four edges are treated withsmooth curved line.

    - Zelkova tree and gingko treeare used.

    - The rim is in the shape ofbiting the top plate.

    It prevents the top platefrom being distorted.

    It heightens economicefficiency in use of woods.

    The table is quite large.

    - The top plate has littledecoration and the grain ofwood is used as it is. Thenatural beauty is emphasized.

    - Gingko tree, walnut tree, peartree, paulownia tree, zelkovatree, linden tree and wildwalnut tree are used.

    Cloud-shapedcarvings

    - It is splendid.

    - Gangwonban (Soban madein Gangwondo) is simplewithout open work ofdesigns.

    - Four legs are connected toreinforce connection of thetable (in case of square table).

    - The designs of vines andpeony are carved in relief.

    - There is upper middle stool tosupport cloud-shaped carvings.

    - Splendid decorations areavoided and the design ofcloud is used for the outerring.

    - They connect the top plateand the legs, and strengthenthe connections of the legs.

    Leg

    - Splendid open work of woodengraving is characteristic.

    - Wood engraving for left andright is slightly widened to thebottom, which is for stability.

    - The designs of fret, lotusflower, rat, vine, and aredesigned.

    - Mostly wild walnut tree isused for wood engraving.

    - In case of square table, thelegs are usually round orhorse shaped.

    - The legs are mostly thickcylinder type, and the designsof animal like tiger, dog, andhorse are used a lot.

    - The upper part of the legs ismade in the type of halvingfor insertion of cloud-shapedcarvings.

    - Pine tree, alder tree and ashtree are used a lot.

    MiddleStool

    - There is no middle stool andinstead, cloud-shaped carvingsare substitute for it.

    - Usually, there are two middlestools for top and bottom.

    - There is no middle stool orone for the top of the legs.

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 241

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    246 -

    Symbolic Meaning of Patterns on Furniture

    JungYonhak(Curator,TheNationalfolkMusemofKorea)

    1. Introduction

    Korean furniture, such as bandaji (clothes chests with their front divided into an upper

    compartment and vacant half), jangnong (wardrobes), mungapjang (stationery chests), and ham

    (boxes or cases), are typically decorated with symbolic patterns implying wishes and expectations

    of people.1) These patterns are engraved on metal ornaments such as gyeongcheop (hinges),

    handles, knobs, clamps, and locks, and they can be classified into animals, plants, physical objects

    or materials, letters, geometrical figures, and other natural forms. Animal patterns usually take the

    forms of bats, butterflies, swallows, or fish. Used in plant patterns are mainly flowers such as

    chrysanthemum, maehwa, peony, pomegranate, and mokdan. The main physical objects include

    gourd bottles and yeoui (ceremonial tools in Buddhism). Pieces of furniture and their ornaments are

    also patterned with Chinese characters such as , , , , , and . Some of

    patterns can take natural forms like the clouds or a halfmoon. In addition, other patterns found

    include geometrical figures such as Taegeuk design, Palgwae (The Eight Trigrams for Divination)

    and . In general, a piece of furniture is decorated with various forms of pattern, each of which has

    a symbolic meaning and implies wishes of people. This paper will be focused on symbolic

    meanings of patterns found on furniture.

    2. Patterns on Furniture

    There is no systematic classification of patterns on furniture. Such classification was just

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 247

    1) WoodFurniture ,TheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea,2003.

  • character [] means a butterfly and is pronounced jeop like the character [ ] meaning an

    advanced age, the butterfly design is also applied to express longevity.3)

    Swallowtails, or jebi-chori, derive their name from their shape. According to Heungbu-jeon,

    one of the classical Korean operas, a swallow is one kind of beast, or Heungbu, that brings good

    luck to his family. Swallows are messengers of arrival especially insofar as they portend the spring

    and the return of all things to life. This role is commemorated in popular sayings, such as it is bad

    luck unless a swallow comes and the swallows early return and breeding predict fruitful years.

    Fish are accounted protective symbols of household wealth on account of their keeping their

    eyes open during sleep. Locks on safes or furniture containing money, secret documents or other

    valuables are often thus figured as or decorated with fish. Fish not only denote guardianship but

    wealth and abundance.

    2) Plants

    Flowers are frequently used as themes in plant patterns. In one sense, flowers represent beauty.

    and in another, peace, because the Chinese characters [ (a flower)] and [ (peace)] are

    homophonous; They are pronounced as hwa in the Korean pronunciation system. These

    markings are common in classical Korean furniture.

    Pomegranate and maehwa blossoms, characterized by their abundance of fruits, signify

    fecundity. The effects of wedding parties usually have these plant patterns engraved on them, with

    the implication that all present pray for many offspring. In particular, the Four Gracious Plants (the

    plum, the orchid, the chrysanthemum and the bamboo shoot) are the most popular for furniture.

    The peony blossom, or the king of flowers, is widely embroidered on the royal clothes of the queen,

    on brides wedding costumes, and is painted on folded screens for use in wedding parties and

    during festivals.

    On furniture, you can also see the grass design such as dangcho-mun or indong-mun or their

    combination, which is called the indong-dangcho-mun. Both the two plants dangcho and indong

    (woodbine) belong to the vine, dangcho is known to have broader vines compared with indong

    (woodbine).4) The dangcho-mun is one of the most widely used grass designs in the Tang dynasty

    of china. Indong () is a vine plant that is found in Korea and Chinas mountainous areas, and

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 249

    attempted individually in a few books or essays.2) The classification in this study includes categories

    such as animals, plants, physical materials, letters, natural objects, and geometrical figures.

    1) Animals

    The main animal patterns on furniture are figures of bat, butterfly, swallow, fish, and other

    animals that have been considered propitious : bonghwang (Chinese phoenix), crane, dragon, turtle,

    and deer.

    Since a bat is spelled pyeon-bok [ ] in Chinese and the character [ ] has the same

    pronunciation as [] meaning good fortune - in other words, since the Chinese characters [ ]

    and [] are homophonous - the bat design is regarded as symbolizing good fortune or good

    luck. The design of twin bats means a double fortune. And as shown in the Chinese classics

    Sangseo-Hongbeom (-), the design of five bats represents the Five Blessings called

    Obok: longevity (), wealth (), health (), love of virtue (), and natural death ().

    Today, the Five Blessings is also interpreted as luckiness (), happiness (), longevity (), a

    matter for congratulation (), and property () or longevity (), wealth (), nobility (),

    comfort (), prosperity (). A red bat implies great luck, because the Chinese

    characters [ (red)] and [ (wide)] are homophonous. And the design of a bat with a coin in the

    mouth means the luck of fortune. In addition, there are various designs expressing good fortune

    like the combination of a bat and a child, a bat and a peach, or a bat, a peach, and two coins. If a bat

    is depicted upside down, it is to express a symbolic meaning that good fortune is pouring out.

    The butterfly is considered as symbolizing the male gender, because it looks about for

    flowers. Due to its showy pattern and gorgeous wings, the butterfly design is especially favored by

    women. The movement of butterflies wings suggests pleasure, while the use of the butterfly

    pattern in amulets consecrating romantic love mean lends a double implication of (usually marital)

    faithfulness. It was believed that if the members of a couple kept safe the butterfly amulet, their

    relationship would improve: the husband would not be dissolute, and the couple would leave their

    offspring well-off. There is thus another symbolic sense in the use of the butterfly pattern to mean

    the flourishing of many thousands of generations of offspring. In addition, since the Chinese

    248 -

    2) HongJeongsilusedtheapproachofclassifyingpatternsonjangseokorlocksintoanimals,plants,artifacts,naturalobjects,andgeometrical figures (HongJeongsil, Jangseok andLocks ,Daewonsa,1990);NohYongsookspatternclassification includescategoriessuchasgeometrical figures, letters,plants,andotherobjects (NohYongsook, AStudyofLocksandKeysUsed in theJoseondynasty ,Masters thesisatSookmyung WomensUniversity,1983);andChoiYoungsil reported theclassificationof furniturepatternsinvolvinggeometrical figures, letters,plants,andanimals (ChoiYoungsil, AStudyofWoodFurnitureandLocksUsedintheLatePeriodofJoseon ,MastersthesisatEwhaWomensUniversity,2000).

    3) HeoGyun, TraditionalPatterns Dawonsa,1995,p.24

    4) ImportantIntangibleCulturalPropertyNo.99Sobanjang (Joinery) NationalCulturalPropertiesResearchInstitute,p.63

  • However, the full moon is momentary, which means it wanes as time goes on, so a new moon or a

    half moon was regarded better than the full moon. People thought that just as a new moon and a

    half moon waxed, fortune or wealth would increase. According to the episode of King Talhae

    (?~80) in Samgukyusa (a book about the overlooked historic records of Silla, Goguryeo, and

    Baekje), the fourth king of Silla dynasty, King Talhae, took out the house site of Hogong, a

    legendary person in the Silla dynasty, and became the king later because the house site had the

    shape of a new moon. And further, furniture has lots of half moon designs on it. The design of

    clouds engraved on furniture means to wish home abundant and peaceful.

    6) Geometrical figures

    Among the geometrical figures, Taeguk, Palgwae (the Eight Trigrams for Divination), and

    are representative figures used on furniture. Taeguk, the origin of all the things in the universe,

    means eternity. The design of Taeguk is called Yin-Yang figure, which means harmony between

    yin (positive or male) and yang (negative or female). Taeguk is believed to have an ability to correct

    any faults with a thing, and power to suppress capriciousness and control wickedness.

    Palgwae (the Eight Trigrams for Divination) is the basic ones of 64 trigrams for the Book of

    Changes, which are geon[] (sky), tae[] (pond), yi[] (fire), jin[] (thunderstorm),

    son[] (wind), gam[] (water), gan[] (mountains), and gon[] (land). The things that

    the eight trigrams symbolize are the origins of creation of everything in the universe and they mean

    creation.

    The design of which symbolizes things available in the world is interpreted as the genital

    organs, lightening, god of fire, or sun.5) Originally, the letter of was that of the ancient India.

    During the reign of Queen Cheukcheonmuhu in China, it was employed to have the meaning of

    lucky omen.6) In India, it is regarded as the mark of the cycles of life because one has it on ones

    breast when born. At first, was not a letter, but it became to be used same as the letter of

    man[] meaning ten-thousand, and further, it got to have the meaning of infinity. Therefore, the

    combination of and shown on furniture means longevity.

    The design of hoicheon[] is to express all the things in the universe. The circle means

    the universe and the letter of means revolution. That is, just as the universe revolves, everything

    will be made well. The lightening design on furniture means beating off disasters and evil spirits.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 251

    the name implies the meaning of a patient grass that stands the cold of winter. The design of vines

    on furniture also reflects the wish for the prosperity of descendants.

    3) Physical objects

    Gourd bottles engraved on furniture are named after the shape of the calabash which, in Korean

    legends of the flood offered a brother and sister, symbolizing humanity, a place of refuge above the

    waves. Gourds also denote good harvest through their large number of seeds. Depictions of

    calabash vines spreading far into the distance suggest longevity, while paintings of calabash fruit

    and vines express the hope that a family will leave hundreds of thousand of generations of

    inheritors.

    The Korean phrase yeo-ui [], meaning everything goes with the prayers, is also

    conventionally denoted by means of symbol, in the form of a bent tool drawn from Buddhist ritual.

    Yeo-ui was originally held by monks and used for the purposes of pushing and pulling, but is now

    figured as a form of crook represented on furniture patterns.

    4) Letters

    While the decorations and patterns symbolically express lucky omen, letters directly express

    one's wishes. Among those letters, obok[] meaning five blessings (longevity, wealth, health,

    love of virtue, and peaceful death), and the phrases meaning wish for the prosperity of descendants

    are used a lot. The letters of su[] (meaning longevity), bok[] (good fortune), bu[]

    (wealth), gui[] (nobility), hui[] (happiness), gang[] (comfort), nyeong[] (peace),

    da[] (a lot), and nam[] (men) often appear individually or in a combination like bugui[

    ], jangsu[], or huibok[]. These phrases are closely related with Koreans ideology of

    praying for blessings. Besides, there are some phrases showing the Confucian sense of value like

    chung[] (loyalty), hyo[] (filial piety), sin[] (trust), ye[] (etiquette), ui[]

    (rightfulness), yeom [] (integrity), and chi[] (shame), the cases of which are not so

    common.

    5) Natural objects

    Among the natural objects, the moon and clouds are used for design most. The moon was

    regarded to create everything. The full moon on the 15th day had a symbolic meaning. That is,

    people read good harvest through the moon or carried out several services to pray for good harvest.

    250 -

    5) YeJeonmyeong&YeoTaesan, Jungseomusikbigyo ( ) ,ShanghaiOldBookPublishing,1995

    6) HongJeongsil, JangSeokandLocks ,Daewonsa,1990

  • tigers foot.

    The designs on furniture have characteristics by space. That is, the closets and cabinets in the

    main room for the hostess of a household have more splendid decorations than those in the

    detached living room for the host. Further, the furniture for ladies have delicate and splendid

    designs of feldspars like yin-yang, flower, and butterfly, while the furniture for men have simple

    and natural designs of feldspars such as the Four Gracious plants (plum, orchid, chrysanthemum,

    and bamboo), the characters gilsang[] meaning lucky omen, , ah[] meaning suppress, or

    poem to show a scholars personality.8)

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 253

    3. Combinations of Patterns and their Symbolic Significance

    In the Korean folk paintings, flowers with birds, grass with insects, flowers with butterflies, and

    bats often appear. They have symbolic significance. For example, the painting of flowers with birds

    means that a married couple will live in conjugal harmony, which is often shown on folding

    screens.7) Every decoration on furniture has symbolic significance and the combinations of several

    designs tell ones wish as shown in the below:

    +bat: Great fortune

    +vines:Having many kids

    Twobats: Twin fortunes

    Fivebats: Five blessings

    Vines+ +bat:Descendants continuous prosperity

    Vines+ + +bat: Longevity, fortune, happiness, and having many kids

    +cintamani: Everything will turn out as one wishes

    Koreanbrasscoin+bat: Blessing of wealth

    Cintamani+bat: Everything will go well.

    Taeguk+butterfly: Eternal pleasure

    Butterfly +vine: Descendants prosperity and longevity

    Butterfly+flower :Pleasure

    Flower+bottle :Harmony and peace

    4. Conclusion

    It is not too much to say that furniture like soban and bandaji goes with people in their whole

    lives. The fact that they carry food or keep important things is to play a role of keeping health and

    properties of home. In the process of making soban, the designs having the meaning of beating off

    wicked evil spirits and of wishing lucky omen were engraved. Or, the letter wang[] meaning king

    was engraved upside down on the back of them, which was to block evil spirits access by use of

    the power of a tiger. The reason why soban having a tigers foot shape is hojokban is that the king

    of mountains, a tiger, will keep the food on the table. Besides, it was to wish the soban strong like a

    252 -

    7) YunYeolsu, FolkPaintings ,YekyungPublishing,2000.8) ChoiYoungsil, AStudyofLocksforWoodenFurnitureUsedintheLatePeriodofJoseonDynasty

    MastersthesisatEwhaWomensUniversity,2000,pp.29~31

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  • publication, painting or document preparation. However, since there are not many existing paper

    artefacts and it is difficult to find out the origin of those artefacts, this article intends to introduce

    paper artefacts based on some records in the Joseon dynasty. Those existing paper artefacts with no

    records were excluded.

    Paper Armor

    Armor is worn by soldiers in battlefield in order to protect the body from arrow, spear or sword

    of the enemy. The Annals of King Sejong presents a few kinds of armor during the Joseon dynasty.

    As for paper armor, paper was folded to make scales which were woven with deer hide and painted

    black. Mercury armor was made of metal scales woven with hide and poured down with mercury.

    Willow leaf armor was made of smoked deer hide, which was painted black. Hide armor had pig

    hide scales woven with smoked deer skin. There also was an armor woven with small metal rings.2)

    There were several reasons for the common use of paper as armor materials. The existing leaf

    armor was uncomfortable for archery and horse riding and worn easily within a few years while it

    was difficult to make. By contrast, it was easy to make and wear paper armor.3) Moreover, while

    metal armor was too heavy and cold to wear in winter, paper armor was light and warm enough to

    prevent coldness. On top of that, it required less effort and money to make paper armor than metal

    armor.4) However, paper armor was vulnerable to insects. Therefore, many pointed out that paper

    armor is not a very practical choice as it is easily damaged by worms and difficult to make.5) Most

    of all, some argues that paper armor was not suitable for battle, while others say it does have

    functions as an armor.6)

    In order to make paper armor, paper was folded thick in several layers and each paper scale was

    woven with deer hide, which was dyed red, yellow, or blue according to its purpose and painted

    black in the last stage.7)

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 265

    Introduction of Paper Artifacts in the Joseon dynasty

    KimSamki(SeniorCurator,TheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea)

    It is safe to say that the main usage of paper is publication of books and preparation of

    documents. While paper is a necessity in daily lives in modern times, it was not easily available

    during the Joseon dynasty. In the early Joseon dynasty, paper was produced manually by a paper

    manufacturing office and its local branches under the control of the government. Consequently, the

    supply of paper in the private sector was rather limited. Only a few people were able to get paper

    from other sources such as Buddhist temples. Therefore, paper was mainly used for book

    publication and rarely used as a material for production of artefacts.

    However, as a uniform land taxation system was introduced in the late Joseon dynasty, tributes

    were submitted by tribute men, which made it unnecessary for local public paper manufacturing

    offices to produce papers. As a result, the government- controlled manual industry collapsed, and it

    was replaced by the private manual industry. In particular, as more than 1,000 provincial markets

    were established across the nation in early 18th century, paper started to circulate in the private

    sector through those markets. Paper mulberry tree fields which had been changed into grain fields

    with introduction of the new uniform land taxation system reemerged after 18th century revitalizing

    private manufacture of paper. Therefore, production and demand of paper must have increased after

    18th century and, accordingly, it was likely that paper started to be used for other than printing

    books from after 18th century. The reason for the fact that there are not many remaining paper

    artefacts now, which would not be irrelevant with low durability of paper, was because paper was

    not easily available for the general public. For example, people stole books away from households

    of scholars or government offices in order to make products like paper shoes and hats, which shows

    that the supply of paper in the private sector fell far short of the demand.1)

    This article focuses more on artistic feature of paper usage rather than ordinary usage for book

    264 -

    1) Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , kingofsukjongs seconddayofninthmonthinhisninthyearonthethrone.

    2) AnnalsofKingSejong , vol.133.

    3) AnnalsofKingDanjong , vol.10KingDanjongsthirdmonthinhissecondyearonthethrone.Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty)KingInjos24thdayoffifthmonth

    inhisfifthyearonthethrone.

    4) AnnalsofKingInjo , vol.16KingInjossixthmonthinhisfifthyearonthethrone.Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) ,King Injos15thdayofninth

    monthinhis13thyearonthethrone.

    5) AnnalsofKingTaejong , vol.12KingTaejongsseventhmonthinhissixthyearonthethrone.

    6) Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) ,KingInjosfifthdayofthirdmonthinhisseventhyearonthethrone.

    7) AnnalsofKingSejong , vol.127KingSejongs firstmonthinhis32ndyearonthethrone.

  • established near Dumangang river in preparation against invasions by jurchens and then the Joseon

    government sent paper clothes to the regions.11) Those paper clothes sent to the six garrison towns

    were mainly for protection against coldness. Due to the cold weather in the northern border areas,

    paper clothes were provided to soldiers as military material. In the late Joseon dynasty, there were

    some tribute men who were in charge of submission of paper coats made of papers used for clothes

    provided to soldiers in borders of Pyeongan province and in coastal areas.12) These paper clothes

    were generally produced in local towns in Chungcheong province, Jeolla province and

    Gyeongsang-do provinces. Due to the lack of paper, there was difference in quality of the paper

    clothes from one region to another.13)

    Paper clothes were also granted to ordinary citizens during the times of King Yeongjo. In his

    direction, King Yeongjo said, I feel cold whenever thinking of people living in the northern regions

    in this freezing weather. How great would be the suffering of people in need? Grant enough paper

    clothes to people so that they know I care for them.

    It is unknown about durability or functionality of paper clothes but it seems they were excellent

    in protection against coldness. As shown in the remarks at Seungjeongwonilgi, the daily records of

    royal secretariat of the Joseon dynasty,14) paper clothes seems to have had the windproof function.

    For this reason, paper clothes were offered to soldiers in charge of beacon fire, watchmen, and

    soldiers in riverside areas.15) However, it seems that paper clothes did not offer the same level of

    protection against wind as padded clothes.16)

    Paper clothes were highly effective for protection against wind and coldness as thick double

    layered paper was used. For manufacture of paper clothes, papers of failed applicants of the

    national public official exam were used.17) For this purpose, papers of failed applicants from each

    province were collected.18) It is not certain from when those papers were used for clothes but it

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 267

    Paper armor was excellent in keeping out the cold and thus worn in cold regions to protect

    against cold. Moreover, paper armor was relatively lighter than other kinds of armors which made it

    easy to wear. For this reason, paper armor was worn during national ceremonies welcoming foreign

    envoys.8) Paper armor was one of the common gift items offered to Ming or Qing dynasty by

    envoys of the Joseon dynasty.9)

    Paper Furnishings

    Paper furnishings, which commonly refers to ordinary furnishings made of paper, also include

    hand lanterns made of paper. Hand lanterns were usually made of gauze or paper. According to a

    document, Hand lanterns in the military were made of gauze or paper and thick paper was used for

    paper lantern. However, it was difficult to get thick paper in the market and quality paper was

    unavailable. It is unknown about the shape of paper lantern but as for the gauze lantern, it was a

    kind of red-and-blue gauze lantern often hung or carried and paper lantern was presumed to have

    similar functions with gauze lantern. It was specified in the Military Administration section at

    Mangiyorampublished in 1808 by the Joseon government that 1,500 yellow candles, 10 metal

    lanterns, 109 bronze lanterns and 109 paper oil lanterns were distributed to yongho division, 10,000

    yellow candles, 67 metal lanterns, 491 bronze lanterns and 120 paper oil lanterns to Geumwi

    division, and 114,785 yellow candles, 50 pairs of gauze lanterns, 423 bronze lanterns, 67 small

    metal lanterns, and 517 five color paper lanterns, and 120 paper oil lanterns to eoyeong-cheong

    division.

    Paper Clothes

    Paper clothes literally means clothes made of paper. However, it was not made of paper only.

    Paper was used for making clothes because paper clothes were effective in protecting the body

    against wind and coldness. It is considered that paper clothes were provided mostly to soldiers to

    prepare them against coldness.10) Under the rule of King Sejong the great, six garrison towns were

    266 -

    8) AnnalsofKingMunjong , vol.2KingMunjongssixthmonthinhisfirstyearonthethrone.

    9) AnnalsofKingSejong , vol.109KingSejongs eighthmonthinhis27thyearonthethrone.

    10) AnnalsofKingSeonjo , vol.31KingSeonjos tenthmonthinhis25thyearonthethroneandAnnalsofKingSeonjo , vol.106KingSeonjos 11thmonthinhis31styearonthethrone.

    11) AnnalsofKingMyeongjong , vol.29KingMyeongjongseighthmonthinhis18thyearonthethrone.

    12) Mangiyoram

    13) Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingInjosseventhdayofninthmonthinhis20thyearonthethrone.

    14) Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , King Injos15thdayofeighthmonthinhis16thyearonthethrone.

    15) AnnalsofKingYeongjo , vol.104KingYeongjos11thmonthinhis40thyearonthethroneand AnnalsofKingJeongjo , vol.44KingJeongjosfirstmonthinhis20thyearonthethrone.

    16) AnnalsofKingJeongjo , vol.44KingJeongjosfirstmonthinhis20thyearonthethrone.

    17) Bibyeonsadeungrok(annalsof theborderdefensecouncil) , KingGwanghaegunseighthdayof11thmonth inhisninthyearon the throne. Bibyeonsadeungrok(annalsof theborderdefensecouncil) , KingGwanghaeguns tenthdayof11thmonth inhisninthyearon the throneand Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingInjos13thdayofninthmonthinhis19thyearonthethrone.

    18) Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , King Injos18thdayofeighthmonthinhis14thyearonthethrone.

  • which made it hard to get hide for producing military hat and thus paper cords was used instead.

    Then government offices and households of high officials witnessed a rising case of book theft and

    accordingly, paper hats were banned.24) Paper hats were not worn only by soldiers. When ordinary

    citizens could not get hide for hat, paper cords were used instead. Although it is not clearly known

    whether paper cords were used temporarily, they were utilized for manufacturing of a variety of

    ordinary tools.

    Paper Flower

    Paper flowers were used for several different purposes but mainly used when teas and fruits

    were served. Flowers served with fruits were called fruit flower, which was originated from

    Buddhism.25) In this article, paper flower will be addressed mainly focusing on fruit flower.

    Artificial flowers were used for various purposes such as hair decoration, arrangement in vase,

    food, banquets and ceremonies and silk, gold, silver and cloth were used as materials. This artificial

    flowers were already used for royal banquets in Goryeo dynasty, which practice was inherited onto

    the Joseon dynasty.26) According to Gyeonggukdaejeon, the first code of constitutional law in the

    Joseon dynasty, there were two to six professional handicraftsmen in three major government

    offices in charge of rituals and ceremonies for production of artificial flowers.

    According to a relevant record, It was ordered to serve paper flowers with fruits in banquets

    held within the palace with officials attending and to replace red silk cloth with silk paper.27) Paper

    flowers were used in royal banquets of large scale.28) It seems that paper flower was served since it

    costs less than flowers made of other materials. However, the material for artificial flowers differed

    according to kind and scale of banquets. Usually, it was hard to get artificial flowers made of other

    materials on time29) and it cost a lot for production, for which reason paper flower was used.30) Paper

    flowers were used more frequently than flowers made of silk, gold or silver.31) In 1728, King

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 269

    seems that those papers were utilized for paper clothes manufacture in the late Joseon dynasty.

    However, due to the limited amount of paper from regular national exam sites, name lists from

    military service examination, long papers stored at the Ministry of Finance, and ordinary clean

    sheets were used.19)

    Papers used for the national exam were made thick with several layers of sheets and have

    smooth surface as a result of trimming process. Therefore, it is considered that these thick papers

    were better than ordinary fiber in wind protection. However, it is uncertain whether clothes were

    made with only papers or with papers combined with cloth. If paper clothes were good for

    protection against wind, there must have been some problems concerning durability since they

    were unsuitable as outer garments in case of rainy weather. Therefore, the possibility cannot be

    excluded that papers were put inside cloth to make clothes as demonstrated in the document about

    manufacturing of paper clothes out of paper and hemp.20) It seems that people wore oily clothes in

    case of rainfall.21)

    In order to make one paper clothes, one and a half sheet of the national exam were used.22) The

    size of sheet for the exam was not regular and the width varied from 275cm of the largest to 49cm

    of the smallest. The average size of some 23 sheets was 142cm wide and 77cm long.23)

    Paper Hat

    Paper hats were made of paper twisted with strings. Traditional hats were usually made of

    sliced bamboos painted black after combining upper and lower parts of the hat. However, in case of

    paper hats, papers were twisted to form the upper round part and then to lower parts and finished at

    the rim of the hat. Paper hat was in the same shape of traditional hat but it seemed mainly used in

    the military. Soldiers used to wear hats made of hide but the article below shows paper was also

    used for military hats.

    After Byeongjahoran, the Chinese invasion war, an epidemic was rampant among the cattle,

    268 -

    19) Bibyeonsadeungrok(annalsof theborderdefensecouncil) , KingHyojongs12thdayof firstmonth inhisthirdyearonthethrone.

    20) Bibyeonsadeungrok(annalsoftheborderdefensecouncil) , KingHyojongs12thdayoffirstmonthinhisthirdyearonthethrone.

    21) Bibyeonsadeungrok(annalsoftheborderdefensecouncil) , KingYeongjos12thdayofninthmonthinhisfifthyearonthethrone.

    22) Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongs12thdayofninthmonthinhis22ndyearonthethrone.

    23) Theaveragesizewascalculatedbasedon23sheetspossessedbytheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea.

    24) Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongsseconddayofninthmonthinhisninthyearonthethrone.

    25) KimHyeonjun themeaningreflectedintheBuddhisttemple , kyobobookcenter,pg.26,1995.

    26) Theacademyofkoreanstudiesroyalbanquetculture in the lateJoseondynasty , folkcustomscenter.2003.pg.370-371.

    27) AnnalsofKingTaejong , vol.28KingTaejongs12thmonthinhis14thyearonthethrone.

    28) AnnalsofKingSejong , vol.24KingSejongsfourthmonthinhisseventhyearonthethrone.

    29) AnnalsofKingSeonjo , vol.126KingSeonjossixthmonthinhis33thyearonthethrone.

    30) AnnalsofKingInjo , vol.32KingInjosthirdmonthinhis14thyearonthethrone.

    31) AnnalsofKingGwanhaegun , vol.150KingGwanghaegunsthirdmonthinhis12thyearonthethrone.

  • often sent to Qing dynasty as offering and also carried by Chinese envoys.

    It seems that there often was arbitrary management of paper chairs by officials in charge of

    collection of paper chairs submitted as tribute as is often the case with other tribute items.37) Paper

    chairs and oily paper were among the tribute items not easy for the government to manage,38) which

    means that there could be imbalance between supply and demand of paper chair.

    Paper Shoes

    Paper shoes are low cut shoes made of twisted paper and were commonly called as mituri.

    Compared with straw shoes worn by ordinary people, paper shoes were kind of a luxury item.

    Since paper was not supplied enough for the general public, books and documents were major

    sources for making paper shoes. Since shoes were a necessity, people must have worn shoes of any

    kind. Of course, straw shoes were widely worn among ordinary citizens but it is presumed that

    there was a large demand for paper shoes in certain cities. For production of paper shoes, books

    from households of high ranking officials were often used as demonstrated in the following article.

    It is frequently said that books are stolen from many households of high ranking officials as an

    increasing number of people are making paper shoes for livelihood with the rising popularity of

    paper shoes among citizens in the province.39)

    The fact that there were people who professionally made paper shoes for livelihood shows that

    there was a significant demand for paper shoes. Not only books from high ranking officials

    households, but documents from government offices were also stolen for this purpose. It is written

    in a government record in 1702, A low ranking official in the government arrested and

    investigated people who had been said to have made shoes with the resident registration book and

    sold them in the market and it was found out that some government officials secretly sold those

    registration books.40) Paper shoes were worn so commonly among citizens that paper shoes shops

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 271

    Yeongjo ordered to replace flowers made of bronze with paper flowers in royal banquets, which

    seemed to have accelerated common use of paper flowers in banquets.32) Even before the direction

    by King Yeongjo, paper flowers were served with fruits in royal banquets.

    According to Jinyeonuigwe (1719), the record of royal banquet, paper flower was included in a

    variety of artificial flowers served with fruits in royal banquets. In the banquet held in princes

    palace in 1744, 10 large-sized, 42 mid-sized and 5 small-sized paper flowers were served. It is not

    clearly known what the paper flowers were like but artificial flowers as below were used in royal

    banquets held in kings and queens palaces.

    According to another record on royal banquets in 1827, a wide variety of flowers like lotus

    flower, chrysanthemum, peach flower, citron flower, wild berries flower and peony flower were

    served in banquets held in kings and queens palaces.33) The materials for those flowers were not

    written in the record but it is possible that paper was used since artificial flowers made of papers

    only were allowed in large or small banquets and rituals from 1746. Therefore, it is presumed that

    paper flowers were used in common since late 18th century.

    Paper Chair

    Paper chairs were made of twisted paper. It is likely that paper chairs were not used in daily

    lives of ordinary citizens, particularly before the 19th century when paper was not supplied

    sufficiently. However, paper chairs were offered as tribute to some central governmental offices

    and royal households.

    Paper chairs were one of the items submitted to the government as tribute and an item written in

    the record of tributes and taxes. Paper chairs submitted as tribute were managed by a government

    office for use at royal households and government offices.34) It is considered that paper chairs were

    used in rituals like ancestral rites practiced at each government office.35)

    Paper chairs were made mainly in Gyeongsang and Jeolla Provinces because they were two

    major provinces producing paper.36) Other than official use at the government, paper chairs were

    270 -

    32) AnnalsofKingYeongjo , vol.19KingYeongjoseighthmonthinhisfourthyearonthethrone.AnnalsofKingYeongjo , vol.63KingYeongjosfourthdayinhis22ndyearonthethrone.

    33) LeeSeongwu recordofroyalbanquetsinJoseondynasty , vol.1miwonfoodcultureresearchpaper,pg.119-149(27thyearofKingSunjo),1987.

    34) AnnalsofKingTaejo , vol.1KingTaejos 28thdayofseventhmonthinhisfirstyearonthethrone.

    35) AnnalsofKingSeongjong , vol.37KingSeongjongstenthdayof12thmonthinhisfourthyearonthethrone.

    36) Seungjeongwonilgi(daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , King Injos15thdayofsixthmonthinhis13thyearonthethrone.

    37) Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongs17thdayoffifthmonthinhis18thyearonthethrone.

    38) Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingYeongjos22nddayoffirstmonthinhisthirdyearonthethrone.

    39) Seungjeongwonilgi (daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongsseconddayofninthmonthinhisninthyearonthethrone.

    40) Seungjeongwonilgi (daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongs11thdayofsecondmonth inhis28thyearonthethroneand Seungjeongwonilgi(dailyrecordsofroyalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongs23rddayoftenthmonthinhisfourthyearonthethrone.

  • dampproof.42) Oily paper was used in a various way such as for making a hat worn in case of rain or

    snow. As shown from the fact that umbrellas were made of oily paper,43) oily paper was often used

    for protection against rain.44) There also was a kind of rainy coat made of oily paper.

    Oily paper was also used in making oily paper chair. Similarly with the paper chair mentioned

    above, oily paper chair was made of twisted paper which was later applied with oil. Oily paper

    chair was granted to government officials on special occasions or to Japanese envoys as gift.45) In

    addition, there were some cases that oily paper was used as painting sheet for the king and bags for

    containing documents or letters submitted to the king was made of oily paper.46)

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 273

    appeared in the market. Unable to meet the demand of paper used in those paper shoes shops,

    government documents such as resident registration books were stolen in large scale and distributed

    to each region. According to a government record, a significant amount of documents were stolen

    in 1683 which were sold for paper shoes production.41) Besides theft cases, there were many

    corruption cases by government officials who secretly sold government documents for money.

    Paper Cabinet

    Paper cabinets were framed with wood and covered with paper. Wooden frames were constructed

    to make a paper cabinet from the beginning or worn out or contaminated cabinets were covered with

    paper. For the former purpose, a simple wooden frame was made to be covered with paper and

    ordinary wood material was used for the frame since the wooden texture was not shown from outside.

    For the latter purpose, the basic frame was composed of thin wooden planks, which were covered

    with paper. In case of paper cabinet, used paper was pasted in several layers to be covered with white

    sheet and then vegetable oil was applied as a finishing touch. These kinds of paper cabinets were used

    among ordinary citizens who could not afford to buy expensive furniture. Due to the low durability of

    paper cabinet, worn out or broken paper cabinets were often repaired for further use.

    Paper Chest and Box

    In order to make paper chest and box, several layers of bush clover, bamboo, willow, plain

    wood plank or paper were pasted thick, which were then covered with paper. These chests and

    boxes were used for storing of clothes, books or other small items and they were often laid on top

    of another. Paper chest was mainly used among women for keeping clothes and color papers were

    pasted for decoration.

    Oily Paper

    Oily paper literally means paper applied with oil. Oil was applied to paper particularly for

    272 -

    41) Seungjeongwonilgi (daily recordsof royalsecretariatofJoseondynasty) , KingSukjongs11thdayofsecondmonthinhis28thyearonthethrone

    42) AnnalsofKingDanjong , vol.2KingDanjongs26thdayofeighthmonthinhiseighthyearonthethrone.

    43) AnnalsofKingJeongjo , vol.7KingJeongjos17thdayofsecondmonthonthethrone.

    44) AnnalsofKingSukjong , vol.40KingSukjongs28thdayof12thmonthinhis30thyearonthethrone.

    45) AnnalsofKingSejo , vol.21KingSejos29thdayofeighthmonthinhissixthyearonthethrone.

    46) AnnalsofKingSeongjong , vol.239KingSeongjongs15thdayof fourthmonth inhis21styearon thethrone.

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 275

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 277

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 279

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    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 281

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    280 -

  • In Buddhism, the lotus flowers are a symbol of Buddha, which are adorned with paper flowers.

    In Shamanism, the flower is recognized as a medium for the communication between spirit,

    shaman, believer, etc. and as a spiritual thing. Based on Shamanism, several flower-related stories

    have been recited with the story of princess Bari, wishing that the souls of the dead are reborn in

    heaven. In other words, the flower has meaning in that death in the mundane world is a new

    beginning of life in heaven. It is the flower where a spirit descending from heaven preferentially

    blesses with son. Furthermore, because it has been taken as a symbol of harmonization between

    God and man connecting the spiritual world with the mundane world, the paper flower has been

    deeply involved in Shamanism as an essential spiritual entity.

    The paper flower in Shamanism is a God flower.1) Its often been recognized as shaman's flower

    only. The flower is basically used for the communication with a spirit. It symbolizes the visit of the

    soul as well. As the flower represents the soul in itself, the soul shows himself as a flower and

    works miracles through the flower. Besides, the presence of the flower is the main reason that the

    soul pays his visit and is seated. Therefore, it is an essential part in any type of shamanic ritual. The

    more recommendable name of the flower is the divine flower, or the flower of the spirit, rather than

    the shamanistic flower.

    The spiritual paper flower in Shamanism has the shape of table flower used in royal rites or

    banquets. It has been developed under the influence of Buddhism and Taoism. The track of the two

    religions is well reflected on the subject matters of spiritual flower. Supalyeon is one of the best

    examples. With regard to the influence of Taoism, above all, it uses perpetual youth related subjects

    such as an old man in the Antarctic, peony, butterfly, crane etc. Therefore, Supalyeon is directly

    related with god-blessing philosophy which is based on human desire: eternal youth, wealth and

    prosperity.

    2. Hwagong (Paper Flower Maker)

    A paper flower maker has been called in several different names: Hwagong, Hwajang,

    Jihwajang, Johwajang, Jigong, Hwanjaengi etc. Table flower craftsman is described in a code of

    laws: Gyeonggukdaejeonand Daejeonhoetong. According to the former code, there were 6

    paper flower craftsmen in Bongsangsa temple. The temple was taking charge of religious service at

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 283

    Flower of the Soul : Jihwa (Paper Flower)

    YangJongsung(SeniorCurator,TheNationalFolkMuseumofKorea)

    1. Definition of Jihwa (Paper Flower)

    From the aesthetic point of view, Jihwa, different from a natural flower, is an imitation flower

    whose shape and color considerably vary due to the diversity of human desire and interest. Its

    called different names depending on where it is design originaled. If the paper flower is decorated

    on a table, its called table flower. If a bier is adorned with the paper flower, its called bier

    flower.

    The paper flower has widely been used in ritual ceremony (Taoism, Buddhism, Shamanism

    etc.), as well as in traditional funeral rites and royal ceremonies. The bier flower in funeral rites is a

    symbol of paradise in the mundane world from the perspective of the living. It solaces the spirit of

    the dead and helps it to reincarnate into another life, implying the purification of the body and the

    awakening of the soul. The table flower used in royal rites and banquets, on the contrary, makes it

    possible to classify social status and rank and estimate the scale of the ceremonies. Three-stories

    large supalyeon, a model example of table flower, contains the wish for peace, wealth, strong army

    in a nation, and the health and long life, fame, and prosperity of people.

    The paper flower in religious rites is taken as a belief subject. As a medium which connects

    with a spiritual being or the religious subject, it is also recognized as a symbol of the spiritual being

    itself. The flower in Taoism, in which perpetual youth and longevity philosophy is emphasized, is

    an essential element that stands as a symbol for eternal life. The full-blown flowers in heaven on

    earth, such as Samdo or Gonnyun, above all, are considered as the eternal-youth herbs. In Taoism,

    God and man are described with flower decoration on their head. One historic record says that the

    divinities are dressed in red with lotus flower crown on their head. Buddhist utopia, which has been

    taken as a symbolic site where a new life is prayed for, is well known with full of lotus flowers. The

    flowers before the Buddhist alter to offer food to Buddha are gorgeously ornamented paper flowers.

    282 -

    1) YangJongsung&ChoiJina, SpiritualFlowerused inSeoulShamanicRitual , KoreanShamanismStudy ,2001,pp.63~100.

  • Dongsuk family in Yeonghae city which are famous for Byeolshingut, a shamanic ritual, have made

    the flower of the soul by performing the exorcism. They have handed down the paper flower-

    related craft to posterity as well. Its a mans duty to make the flower of spirit, but a woman who is

    performing the exorcism also participates in that duty. Its already been a long time since the

    tradition of paper flower crafts was disconnected. Now, even shamans have no idea about the

    history, origin, or identity of the paper flowers.

    3. Supalyeon

    Supalyeon flower is a figment of our imagination. It has existed in our history and culture only

    through religious services. It is described in royal rites and Euigwae (a book in which various royal

    events are painted). The table flower is also described in Euigwae where Hyegyeong-gung Hongs

    60th birthday feast is drawn. According to this book, the lotus flowers and leaves in large

    Supalyeon are made of wax. The gap between the leaves is decorated with laurels and peaches

    (blue or red). Ten Child Hermits are holding up a gold or silver liquor cup, and the South Pole Star

    is found in the cup on which eight gold Chinese characters which stand for a peaceful reign are

    engraved. Large Supalyeon is arranged on a grand table while medium and small ones are placed

    on each side of the large one. Red blossoms of a peach tree, peony blossoms, China roses, and other

    kinds of flowers are arranged in small or large food vessels and on the table for the spirits.

    Supalyeon is also described in Jinyeon-euigwae vol.2 (written in 1902). According to the book,

    twenty-two kinds of flowers were used to make Supalyeon. Large Supalyeon was arranged on the

    center of a grand table while middle and small ones were placed on each side of the large one. In

    addition, red peach flower, chastity flower, and peony flower were arranged on side-dish bowels,

    Oeseon table, or Sachan table. All these imitation flowers which were decorated on dishes and

    offered to Buddha were called, table flower.

    According to Jinyeon-euigwae, meanwhile, Supalyeon used in royal rites varied in size and

    gorgeousness depending on the scale and meaning of the ceremony. In case of grand royal rites,

    three-story large Supalyeon were used. Two-stories middle one and one-stories small one were also

    used accordingly. Regardless of its size and use, supalyeon has been used in wish for peaceful

    reign, wealth, and prosperity. However, its now known yet how it was used in royal rites.

    When compared with that on the table-flower plate which was used for court ritual and royal

    rites, the Supalyeon in the table settings which were described in Mudang-Naeryeok (Shamans

    History) in the late Joseon dynasty looks almost same. Funther thorough research should be made

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 285

    that time. It seemed that it in need needed of as many as 6 artisans to make sufficient imitation

    flowers for the rites. In Seongonggam (Ministry of Construction), there were 4 table-flower

    container craftsmen. They made flower vases, imitation flower covers etc.

    The paper flower craftsmen made a variety of flowers used in Shamanism, Buddhism, funeral

    service as well as royal rites. According to Hwagong Bae Munil2) (1900 ~ 1990) who made spiritual

    flowers for the shaman in Hwanghae province in North Korea today, it turned that they were used

    in funeral and temple services as well as shamanic ritual. When he was young, he used to make

    table flowers as well for a grand banquet. Therefore, it seemed that paper flower craftsmen made

    various types of flowers. For example, they usually made the flowers for Buddhist rites only, but

    they would make those for shamans rites and rituals at the same time. The paper flowers used in

    Eunsanbyeolsinjae (village shamanic ritual of Eunsan) would be used in neighboring temples.

    Today, its an undertaker who makes the flowers for village ritual.

    In the case of a large-scale shamanic ritual being performed, the professional paper flower

    craftsman usually takes care of all the flower-related work. He should be well informed about

    shamanic ritual. He is provided with a flower making room and well hospitalized. Before beginning

    his duty, he performs his ablutions and offers side dishes without meat or fish to spirits. He and the

    shaman are forbidden to get close to the food with offensive or fishy smell. They should keep neat

    and clean. They are not allowed to go out as well. They devote their mind and spirit to the flowers.

    The shaman buys the flowers made in the flower making room from Hwanjaengi (an artisan)

    during the exorcism.3) Its called, flower purchasing. For Mangudaetak-Gut, a traditional full-

    scale exorcism performed in Hwanghae province, the head shaman bought finished flowers from

    an artisan and arranged them in an exorcism room. Similarly, the main traditional exorcism

    ceremonies of Seoul offered flowers to the shrine after Judang-mulim and before Bujeong-

    cheongbae, and during exorcism the shamans practiced a separate procedure or rite of buying

    flowers from the artisan. Therefore, the shaman who preformed the full-scale shamans exorcism

    should be well aware of all the details about the flowers as well as the exorcism itself.

    Its been taken no wonder that the crafts of the paper flower artisans have been taken down over

    generations. Hwagong An Seungsam who makes the Hwanghae province shaman flowers in

    Incheon city is handing over his craft to his son. He is not a shaman but makes the flower of the

    soul and ornaments. He also paints related paintings. Kim Seokchul family in Busan city and Song

    284 -

    2) YangJongsung, ShamansFlowerandTools -PaperFlowerCraftsman,BaeMunil FolkNews ,1995,p.5.

    3) Thespiritual tools including thepaper flowermadebyHwanjaengiaredisplayedon thestudio forsale. Inorder tobuy them,ashamanshouldknowabout them indetails. Ifshe isnotsufficiently informedaboutthem,theartisandoesntsellthemtotheshaman.

  • 4) Orchid

    According to Hwagyeong, its said, as a different type of orchid, the elegant violet plant with

    wider and smooth leaves is called, Son. As its pronounced like the Chinese character meaning

    posterity, the orchid came to stand a symbol for the prosperity of descendants.

    5) Bellflower

    In shamanism, the roots of bellflower are one of the traditional Korean vegetables along with

    Korean parsley and bracken. The white roots of bellflower are the symbol of our white-clothed

    ancestor. The black bracken, stem vegetable, represents our parents. The blue Korean parsley, leafy

    (stem) vegetable, on the other hand, is a symbol of ourself. In other words, the roots of bellflower,

    bracken, and Korean parsley stand as a symbol for the past, present, and future of human blood

    relationship in order.4)

    6) Darihwa

    Darihwa flower is a figment of our imagination. Its divided into two types: ordinary Darihwa

    flower and Sil-darihwa flower(whose petals are cut very thin like threads). Its made in various

    colors. The white one, above all, is meaningful in that its used to greet the gods of heaven.

    7) Autumnal Tilts

    Maple leaves are a symbol of fall. As a season of harvest, people thank a divine spirit for a good

    harvest. The Haetgokmagi-Gut (a shamanic ritual for new-grain thanking exorcism) is called,

    Maple Leave Greeting. The maple leaves represent the abundant food stuffs.

    8) Crane

    A crane, one of the Ten Immortals, represents longevity. Its the very creature that a Taoist

    Immortal rides on.

    9) Bakdujo (White-head Bird)

    Its been said that when a pair of white-head bird is harmonized with a peony, life-long wealth

    and fame are guaranteed.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 287

    to find out if the paper flower craft is originated from either shamanism or royal rites. This kind of

    debate may be concluded that it is originated from the royal ceremony when spiritual costume was

    considered.

    In this paper, the large Supalyeon used in shamanic ritual in Seoul area shall be examined. To

    retain its integrity as the flower arranged on an exorcism table, Supalyeon needs a variety of plants

    and other components. It uses various plants (lotus flower, peony, plum blossom, orchid, camellia

    flower, darihwa flower, bellflower, maple leaves), insects (butterfly, ladybug), birds (crane, white

    head bird, lovebird), and other decorations (the South Pole Star, a young fairy).

    1) Lotus

    Lotus seed has been known with its indomitable life force. Therefore, an orchid has been a

    symbol of life birth and prosperity. In Buddhism, it is a symbol of cleanliness, chastity, and purity,

    while it is a metaphor of honorable poverty and pound loneliness in Confucianism. In Taoism,

    Haseongo, one of the Eight Taoist Hermits, alway carries the elegant flower. Most plants bear fruit

    after the flower is in full bloom while the lotus bears the fruit when the flower bursts into bloom at

    the same time. This unique feature of the lotus is symbolized as the so-called, Lotus Life, which

    means the continued birth of descendants.

    2 ) M o k d a n h w a

    Mokdanhwa is Korean name of a peony. It has been preferred as the symbol of beauty,

    favorability, and happiness. It also represents wealth and prosperity, luck, and harmony. The peony

    may have different meanings combined with other patterns or images. When it is arranged in a

    vase, it symbolizes prosperity and peace. In shamanism, its said that evil spirits would run away

    on seeing a big flower. Due to its big size, therefore, people believe that Mokdanhwa has made the

    ghosts run away.

    3) Plum Bloom

    Due to its pure fragrance and elegance, plum has been a symbol of purity and fidelity. Due to its

    indomitable life force even under biting cold, its also been a symbol of integrity. Its also a

    metaphor of longevity, which burst into bloom after going through a cold and harsh winter. In other

    words, its a symbol of chastity, integrity, and longevity.

    286 -

    4) YangJongsung, Hwanghaedogut ,Minsokwon,2002.

  • person who likes the flower probably has a good personality. The favorable view on the flowers has

    been deeply engraved in our long history and culture. In songs, folk stories, and poems, the flower-

    related examples are easily found. The flower-based ideology has been directly applied to the

    several ceremonies such as religious rites, funeral service, and banquet, which in turn developed the

    flower-related culture in full bloom. The paper flower culture is one the examples.

    As the flower of religion, the paper flower has been made for and used in most religious rites

    and rituals as a core element. The spiritual flower, for example, has been regarded as a mysterious

    flower which bursts into bloom anytime and anywhere as a symbol of reincarnation and eternal

    youth. Recently, natural flowers have been substituted for the paper flowers in some cases.

    However, the latter is still widely used. Most people prefer the traditional paper flowers based on

    following reasons: First, it is the paper flowers only which can be freely arrangeable depending on

    its use. For example, a butterfly is decorated on each flower, or the number of flowers can be

    adjustable as wanted. Second, they can be used throughout the whole year without any restriction of

    season. Lastly, they can be painted and adorned with the very color we want.

    Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 289

    10) Bonghwang (Phoenix)

    Due to its longest wings and the most gorgeous figure, Bonghwang has been called as a king of

    the birds. Its been said that if a Bonghwang flies to the sky, all the other birds follow.

    11) Lovebirds

    Lovebirds are a symbol of happy married couple.

    12) Butterfly

    This creature is a symbol of happiness, freedom, and harmony of the sexual harmony.

    13) Maljamjari (dragonfly)

    Mal dragonfly is a symbol of creature that prevents a summer contagious disease. Its been said

    that it drives away all ominous forces.

    14) Ladybug

    It encourages and promotes the spirit of shaman.

    15) Personified South Pole Star

    It is used in wish for peaceful reign and strong army in a nation in a broad sense and longevity

    from the perspective of each individual. As one of the Taoist hermits, It is a metaphor of the

    personified South Pole Star. It seemed that Supalyeon has been greatly influenced by Taoism.

    16) Dongja (Young Boy) Dongnyeo (Young Girl)

    If two young boys sit side by side, they are called, Mildongja. The boy on the right side is a

    symbol of good, and the right one represents evil. In other words, good and evil coexist in the

    flower.

    4. Conclusion

    From the positive perspective (such as beauty, splendor, prosperity, youth, happiness, love, and

    harmonization), a flower purifies human emotion and makes our body and soul sound and rich.

    Therefore, the fact that the flower stands off from the harm and evil has made people believe that a

    288 -

    Reference

    Gyeonggukdaejeon(CodeofLaws)Daejeonhoetong(CodeofLaws)Wonhaengeulmyojeongri-EuigwaeJinyeon-EuigwaeMudang-Naeryeok(ShamansHistory)

    KimTaeyeon, StudyonKoreanPaperFlower(1):FocusingonHumanCulturalAsset,SongDongsuksCraft ,CollectedPapers,HansaJuniorCollege 6,1981.

    KimTaeyeon, StudyonKoreanPaperFlower(2):FocusingonEastSeaShaman,KimSeokchulsCraft , AStudyofBusinessTechniques 4,1985.YangJongsung,ShamansFlowerandTools-PaperFlowerCraftsman,BaeMunill, FolkNews 3,1985.YangJongsung, KoreanShamanicRitual ,Minsokwon,2002.YangJongsung&ChoiJina, SpiritualFlowerusedinSeoulShamanicRitual , KoreanShamanism 4,2002.YaeYonghae PaperFlowerCraftsman , YaeYonghae'scompleteworks(1):TangibleProperties ,1997.ChoiJina, AStudyofMaterialCulturefromJindoSsitgimgut (Ashamanicritualforthedeadman) ,TheAcademyofKoreaStudies(Mastersthesis),1999.

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 291290 -

    AD105

    2~4

    610

    704~751

    14(755)

    1234

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    1475

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    (1674~1720)1679

    1796

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  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 293292 -

    Chronological Table

    PeriodDetails

    AD 105

    2nd~4th century

    610

    704 ~ 751

    755 (14th year ofKing Gyeongdeok)

    1234

    1377 (3rd year ofKing Uwang)

    BC 1st~2nd century

    AD 69

    Goguryeo

    Baekje

    Silla(4th~5th century)

    Tongil SillaKing

    Gyeongdeok(742~764)

    GoryeoKing Mokjong(998~1009)King Munjong(1046~1872)

    King Injong(1123)

    1246 (33rd year of

    King Gojong)

    1272 (12th year ofKing Wonjong)

    1388 (14th year ofKing Uwang)

    Moksimchilgi (lacquered woodenware) items including jukhyeop, wonhyeongdu, banghyeongdu, andyugaetong Discovered at Dahori, Changwon, GyeongnamGayageum (a traditional Korean zitherlike musical instrument), shoetree, leaf of a door, and wooden hammer Discovered at Shinchangdong, Gwangju

    Wooden tableware, lacquerware, and lacquered mirror case Excavated from ancient tombs of Naknang

    Paper invented by Chai Lun in China's Han dynasty

    Mural paintings of Pyeongsang (a wooden bed), chairs, and tables Discovered in ancient tombs of Goguryeosuch as Ssangyeong-chong, Muyong-chong, Sashin-chong, and Gakjeo-chong

    Moksimchilgi items made around AD 300: tray, table, sagakban (a quadrangular table), yibae (a cup with ear-shaped handle) Excavated from Togwangmyo (large-scale earthen casket tomb) in Seokchon-dong, SeoulWooden pillow and footrest made in 525 Excavated from Munyeong-wangneung (The Royal Tomb of KingMunyeong)

    Paper-making technique is believed to have been brought to Korea together with the introduction of Buddhism.

    The Silla Part of Xintangshu reads as follows: "Willow vessels, bronzeware, and earthenware are used astableware."Lacquered cups: Juchilhwajan and dongmyeongchiljan Discovered at Cheonmachong Tomb in GyeongjuLacquered cups: Juchil-johyeong-bae and ChilgobaeLacquered cup: Marangmyeong-chiljan Discovered at Hwangnamdaechong Tomb

    Damjing, a Buddhist monk, introduced colored paper, ink stick, and millstone to Japan.

    The world's first wood-printed Mugujeonggwang-dae-daranigyeong (The Innocent and Clear Bright Darani Sutra)made in the period of Silla Kingdom.

    Samguksagi (The History of the Three Kingdoms) specifies that officials lower than four Dupum are prohibitedfrom using lacquered ware.Government offices related to woodenware items: Majeon, Gwegaejeon, Yangjeon, and ChiljeonCylindrical wooden objects: Chilyeon (a lacquered wooden inkstone case) and Pyeongtal Excavated at AnapjiPond

    Family census registers: Silla-jangjeok in 815 and Silla-chollak-jangjeok in 875The first illustrated Buddhist sutra: Silla-baekji-mukseo-daebang-gwangbul-hwaeomgyeong

    In Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo), there is a record on Jungsangseo as a government-operated craft mill.

    In the 26th year of King Munjong, lacquered ware "Eunsapnujang-ochilsang" was brought as a tribute to the liaoDynasty's royal family. Recorded in Dongguk-munheon-bigo and HaedongyeoksaJungsangseo kept many artisans and craftsmen such as somokjang (joiners), jogakjang (sculptors), najeonjang(mother-of-pearl workmen), juryeomjang, sojang, and majang Recorded in Byeolsa

    Xugeng paid high praise to Goryeo's mother-of-pearl work in his book "Goryeo-dogyeong." He mentioned in thebook the country's woodenware items such as Tap(chair), Ban(table), Jodu(kitchen board), Sangtak(table),Jwatap(seat), Hamjibak(vessel), Sojo(chopping board), Yeondae(banquet table), Danchiljo (red-lacqueredchopping board), Heukchiljo (black-lacqured chopping board), Watap, Deungbun, and Dopil.

    Goryeo's -gogeum-Sangjeongyemun The world's first metallic printing type

    Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo) writes in its 129th volume that Choi Yi set up a table giving a banquet for theking.

    A government office called Jeonhamjoseong-dogam was set up to preserve the world-famous cultural heritagePalmandaejanggyeong (The Tripitaka Koreana); Some of its wood blocks are found in Japan, the United States,Britain, and Holland.Heuchil-poryu-sugeummun-najeonhyang-gap (a black-lacquered case)

    Baekunhwasangchorojbuljo-jikjisimcheyojeol The world's oldest metallic printing type left up to date

    A wooden cup (Takjan) used by a military general from the Ming DynastyA carved wooden plate with the title of a sutra Preserved in Songgwangsa Temple of Seungju

    Paperware Woodenware

    1412

    1430

    1434

    The reign of KingSejong

    (1419~1449)

    1464

    1466

    1475

    The reign of KingSeongjong(1470~1494)

    The reign of KingMyeongjong(1546~1567)

    1625

    The reign of KingSukjong (1674~1720)

    1679

    1796

    1830

    1882

    1391 (3rd year ofKing Gongyang)

    Joseon

    1415 (15th year ofKing Taejong)

    1473 (4th year ofKing Seongjong)

    1480 (11th year ofKing Seongjong)

    1617 (9th year ofKing Gwanghaegun)

    The reign of KingSukjong

    (1674~1720)

    1786 (10th year ofKing Jeongjo)

    Early period of the19th century

    1894 (31st year ofKing Gojong)

    Goryeosa writes in its 85th volume that King Gongyangwang accepted General Bang Saryang's advice: The use ofcopper and iron vessels and bowls should be prohibited and people should be forced to use woodenware onlyso that their folkways could be corrected.

    Set up Jojiso (a paper mill)

    Ordered Seongonggam (a government office) to select 100 skilled carpenters/joiners (later called "gyeong-gongjang")

    Sent people to Daemado Island in order to collect Waejeo (the Japanese paper mulberry).

    Encouraged the paper-making method of specifying the 5:1 mixing ratio of wormwood stalk, barely straw,bamboo sheath, and hemp stalk to the paper mulberry

    Sejongsilnok (History Text of King Sejong) keeps a record of easy-to-make and effective-against-the-cold papersuits of amor. These paper suits of amor were offered for protection against the cold to soldiers who were servingin the border of Hamgyeongdo.

    There is a record that the government asked a Chinese senior enjoy about the method of making yellow paperfrom mulberry bark so that Jojiso (a government-operated paper mill) could apply the method.

    Jojiso was renamed "Jojiseo."

    Sejongsilnok states in its Oryeui (The Five Etiquettes) that about half of funeral articles were woodenware.

    Park Bi, a paper craft artisan, was sent to Beijing, China, so that he could learn a paper-making method there.

    Gyeonggukdaejeon (The Grand Code for State Administration) records that there were 72 joiners amongGyeonggongjang (craftsmen/artisans in Seoul) and 323 joiners among Oegongjang (outside craftsmen/artisans).

    Gyeonggukdaejeon records that among Gyeonggongjang and Oegongjang there were 85 and 692 paper craftartisans, respectively.

    When six military camps (called Yukjin) were set up around Dunmangang River against invasion of the Nuzhenpaper suits were offered to forces stationed in the camps.

    Gwanghaegun's Diary writes in its 113th volume that Seonsudogam (a government office) appealed to the kingthat it couldn't find any of skilled craftsmen and artisans, as most of them had been forced to work for Sadaebu(literati and high officials).

    After Jojiseo was totally destroyed during war, the number of paper craft artisans sharply decreased from 81 in thefirst period of Joseon to 4.

    Hong Manseon made a classification of woodenware items in his book Sallimgyeongje.

    As a serious cattle disease killed many cows, paper-woven felt hats were made.

    As Daedongbeop Law (Act on Uniform Land Tax) were enforced in all parts of three southern provinces,therewas a nationwide decrease in the number of mulberry fields.

    When Daejeontongpyeon (The Comprehensive National Code) was compiled, craft-related government officessuch as Naejasi, Naeseomsi, and Gwihuseo were closed, and as the result the number of carpenters and artisanswas further decreased.As craftsmen and artisans became to get out of the control of the government, woodenware stores such asChilmokgijeon and Mokgijeon were created.

    Adopted a policy of encouraging people in the three southern provinces to raise the paper mulberry and bamboo

    In his book Imwon-gyeongjeji (an encyclopedia), Seo Yugu introduced the names and features of variouswooden utensils and pieces of wood furniture as living necessaries.

    The number of paper-carrying markets reached 46 nationwide.

    Jojiseo was closed.

    After government offices and systems were reorganized/reformed, the General Affairs Bureau of Uijeongbu (StateCouncil) came to oversee artisans and craftsmen and invited engineers to learn Japanese techniques and skills.

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 295

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    ,

    ..

    48.

    21.5117

    (2061)

    .

    .

    .

    49.

    : 121223.8

    : 10104.7

    (1272)

    .

    ,

    ..

    50.

    239.5

    (21036)

    .()

    .

    51.

    2927

    (4715)

    .

    .

    52.

    15117.5

    (1406)

    .

    .

    .

    4.

    53.

    9.514.3

    241

    (11174)

    8

    .

    .

    8.9cm

    54.

    7.813.7

    8

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    55.

    611

    8

    .

    8, ,

    .

    .

    56.

    20.8 28.4

    (4)

    .

    .

    .

    57.

    21.322

    296 -

    22.1122.110.5

    (2009)

    , .

    53,

    2

    .

    ()()()()

    .

    29.

    4554 : 24.55

    5844 : 24.55

    5841 : 26.55

    4557 : 26.55

    (4554, 5844, 5841,

    4557)

    . 5

    ()

    ()

    ()

    .

    3.

    30.

    4327.5

    (23437)

    ()

    () . 12

    () 4

    .

    31.

    16.5 41

    (2229)

    .

    .

    12.

    ().

    32.

    1920

    95

    (16646)

    .,

    .

    33.

    8.53.5

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    34.

    94.5

    10

    . ,

    .

    35.

    10.58.53.5

    .

    .

    36.

    94.5

    .

    .

    37.

    93.5

    .

    .

    38.

    6.213.5

    (553, 554)

    .

    .

    39.

    6.1923.5

    (1420)

    . 3

    3

    ..

    40.

    4.55.720

    (24864)

    .

    , ,

    .

    41.

    3.710.220

    (3)

    .

    , 2

    .

    42.

    1210

    (1969)

    . 3

    .

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 299

    71.

    165.513

    (21065)

    .

    .

    ()

    ,

    .

    72.

    18.58.5

    (15198)

    .

    ,

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    ,

    .

    73.

    167.5

    (24798)

    .

    .

    ,

    .

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    74.

    26.237.241.6

    (310)

    .

    .

    75.

    10145.5

    .

    .

    .

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    76.

    319.516

    (2578)

    .

    .

    77.

    2914

    .

    ,

    .

    78.

    21116

    (2554)

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    .

    .

    79.

    20.68

    (21007)

    .

    .

    80.

    977.5

    (2215)

    .

    .

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    .

    81.

    89.55

    (2256)

    .(),

    ,.

    82.

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    (492)

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    83.

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    (3735)

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    84.

    8716.5

    .

    .

    298 -

    (6135)

    .

    .

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    .

    58.

    16.53924

    (781)

    . 8

    8

    .

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    ,

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    59.

    19

    4219.5

    (173)

    .

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    .

    .

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    60.

    281.8

    13

    (5012)

    .,

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    17.61.60.9

    (1366)

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    .

    62.

    33.53.5

    .

    .

    .

    63.

    212

    .

    .

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    64.

    4687.3

    (2291)

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    ,

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    65.

    306.85.5

    : 961.8

    (791)

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    ,

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    25.57.516

    (21059)

    .

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    67.

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    (244424, -27, -30, -37,

    -40, -41)

    .

    68.

    24.564

    241

    (11165)

    .

    ,

    .

    69.

    2436.5

    (24843)

    .

    ,

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    2578.3

    (25002)

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    .

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  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 301

    .

    .

    2)

    99.

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    (743)

    ()

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    ,

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    100.

    41.529

    (23397)

    12 .

    .

    .

    101.

    41.526.5

    (23404)

    12 .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    102.

    39.527

    (23419)

    12 .

    .

    .

    103.

    4128

    (23375)

    . 12

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    104.

    4533.526.5

    (23583)

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    .

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    105.

    34.222

    (23346)

    , .

    , 12

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    106.

    60.539

    (23432)

    .

    2 12

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    107.

    372226

    (5664)

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    . 4

    ,

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    108.

    48.5 37 26.5

    (23535)

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    43.834.525.5

    (23556)

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    5339.528.5

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    513629

    (23549)

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    112.

    300 -

    85.

    5031

    (1976)

    .

    .

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    10.45.813.4

    (22356)

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    87.

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    (18797)

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    (25036)

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    (9378)

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    (9379)

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    3737.229

    : 13135

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    : 723814.5

    : 63.5435

    .

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    93.

    423125

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    43.229

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  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 303

    . 2

    126.

    1821

    874172

    (6200)

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    127.

    94.24773.1

    (6219)

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    128.

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    (2576)

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    (1746)

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    3813

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    (1397)

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    (23559)

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    (23349)

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    43.234.524

    (23553)

    2.

    120.

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    (17445)

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    9544.585.5

    (24346)

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    122.

    1920

    893870

    (6203)

    .

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    1900

    9036.7103.8

    (17071)

    .

    ,

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    124.

    9243.584

    (6202)

    .

    , 4

    .

    .

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    9140.279.4

    (5926)

    .

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  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 305

    57.527.5

    (3312)

    .

    ,

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    154.

    161626

    (1529)

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    .

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    9618

    (4405)

    36 5

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    (574, 575)

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    40229

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    (348)

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    .

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    26.526

    .

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    2912.5

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    (21037)

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    (24851)

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    1715.5

    (143003)

    .

    .

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    163.

    67.248

    (24759)

    .

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    164.

    1811

    (2005)

    ,.

    .

    4.

    165.

    165.1

    (23918)

    .

    166.

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    (20559)

    .

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    .

    167.

    3366

    (4775)

    304 -

    . : ()

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    : 2311.2

    : 2350

    (21022)

    .,

    . 4

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    19

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    (24857)

    .

    ,

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    30 7.5

    (4067)

    .

    .

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    142.

    15.58

    (107)

    ,

    .

    143.

    17989.5

    (5025)

    .

    144.

    66

    (1732)

    ,

    .

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    145.

    1901

    31

    (24341)

    146.

    55.59079.5

    (1749)

    28

    360.

    .

    147.

    74102

    (25006)

    .

    ,

    .

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    25040 : 1315.1

    25039 : 32.322.4

    (25039, 25040)

    ,

    .

    149.

    16.114.3

    (2575)

    ,

    .

    8

    ,.

    2.

    150.

    3716

    (3376)

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    2312.5

    13.5

    (611)

    .

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    8.85

    (3302)

    ,

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  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 307

    .

    .

    .

    3)

    181.

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    3 10

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    () , , ,

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    306 -

    .

    168.

    11.67.5

    (24847, 24848)

    .

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    3138.5

    .

    .

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    170.

    70

    .

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    3022

    (1338)

    .

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    299221.5

    (25005)

    .

    ,

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    173.

    4148

    (1743)

    .

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    .

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    174.

    2318

    (24735)

    ..

    175.

    2020

    ,

    .

    ,

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    1128123

    (12075)

    .

    .

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    488883

    (12073)

    .

    ,

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    7. ()

    1)

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    . () (

    )

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    .

    180.

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 309

    End of Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    When folded: 3520

    When unfolded: 3546.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (26827)

    This is a paper woven document box.

    The inside is divided into three

    sections which are available for twice

    folding. Two sides, top and cover end

    of the pocket are finished with hemp.

    The black letter ofis

    written in it.

    12. Bitjeop (Comb Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    22.73328

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (653)

    Shaped like a rectangular parallel pipe,

    this box is to keep tools for hair

    combing. Its top cover and front are

    made to be opened. Its front is painted

    red and the designs of seven treasures

    and bat are engraved.

    13. Bitjeop-gobi (Comb file)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    26661.5

    Owned by Suh Seok

    It is a comb box of gobi type made of

    thick paper. A rectangular wooden

    board is pasted with paper. There are

    designs of dragon, lion and phoenix

    on the front.

    14. Silgwak (Sewing Box)

    Made age Unidentified

    Wood

    20.897

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (428)

    This is a rectangular parallelepiped-

    shaped box to keep threads. Its cover

    is grooved to open and close. Inside

    the cover, there is a letter that a

    daughter sends to her father.

    15. Saeksilsangja (Sewing Box)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    When closed: 3016.512.3

    When opened: 304512.3

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper Museum

    (625)

    This is a box to keep threads. On the

    top of it, the design ofis

    embossed. It has a 4-sided folding

    box in it and a 3-partitioned box

    below it. Its inside is composed of

    four drawers in two stories.

    16. Donggori (Round WickerSuitcase)

    Joseon dynasty

    PineOsier

    2210

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (5924)

    Made of osier twigs, this suitcase is

    composed of two boxes up and

    down. Its rim is covered with pine

    tree.

    17. Jijangdonggori (Round WickerSuitcase)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    PaperOsier

    2130

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (24810)

    It is composed of the upper and the

    lower part. The whole of it is finished

    with paper. Taeguk pattern is carved

    on the center of the upper part, and

    on the sides, the shape of '', butterfly

    and three leaves are designed in

    colored paper.

    2. Stationery

    18. Yeonsang (Inkstone Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    41.528.725.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (524)

    This table is to keep an inkstone. It

    consists of a collecting section with 2

    covers and of a drawer for keeping

    paper, brush and ink stick.

    19. Byeorujip (Inkstone Box)

    End of the 19th Century

    PaperWood

    30.818.413

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (24904)

    This case is to keep an inkstone. The

    frame is made of wood, the inside and

    the outside of which are pasted with

    paper. The letter ofis embossed

    on the cover.

    20. Najeon Piltong(Mother-of-Pearl Brush Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodMother-of-pearl

    17.510

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    This is a case for brushes decorated

    with mother of pearl. Three cylinders

    with different height each are made

    into one case.

    21. Jije-najeon Piltong(Mother-of-Pearl Brush Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperMother-of-pearlWood

    912.5

    Owned by Suh Seok

    This is a case for brushes. Cylindrical

    paper is decorated with the designs of

    bamboo, flower and bee made of

    mother of pearl.

    22. Jukje Piltong(Brush Case Made of Bamboo)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    1317

    Owned by Suh Seok

    This is a case to keep brushes. 36 thin

    bamboos are jointed round in two

    stories and then, they are pasted with

    paper. The letters of

    made of paper are pasted on the

    surface and then, colored.

    23. Piltong (Paper-Woven BrushCase with Round Shape)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    118.59.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    308 -

    Description of Illustration

    .Woodenware and

    Paperware Items

    with Similar Uses

    1. For keeping

    1. Uigeorijang (Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paulownia

    8143171

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (15435)

    A chest to keep clothes, it is divided

    into two sections: the upper for

    hanging clothes and the lower for

    piled-up clothes. On the door,

    bamboo design, poems, and the letter

    of '' (long life, happiness and

    peace) are carved.

    2. Uigeorijang (Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodPaper

    7637148.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (25001)

    This is a chest combined with bandaji

    (clothes chest with a hinged front flap).

    The inside and the outside of the

    wooden frame are pasted with paper

    and then, colored. The designs of

    flower and birds are carved on it.

    3. Icheungnong (Double Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paulownia

    8747.526.8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (4281)

    This is furniture to keep clothes or

    valuables. Two combined wardrobes

    are put up and down on the separable

    leg support. On the opening/closing

    door in the middle, the designs of

    bamboo and pine are carved with

    mother of pearl.

    4. Icheungnong (Double Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperPaulownia

    90.341.5119.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (24998)

    The wooden frame is pasted with

    paper and then, decorated with the

    thick paper designs of pine, bamboo,

    swallow, and tiger. It is pasted with

    paper again and then, painted red.

    This furniture is to keep clothes.

    5.Ganghwa Bandaji (Chest)

    Modern

    Wood

    95.849.276.4

    Possessed by Seoul Museum of History

    (3892)

    It is a bandaji (clothes chest with a

    hinged front flap) found in the

    Ganghwado area. The letter of "" is

    open-carved on the gourd bottle-

    shaped foreground and on the

    bellybutton ornament.

    6. Jijang Bandaji (Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWood

    923756.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    It is a bandaji. The frame is made of

    wood and paper.

    7. Ham (Mother-of-Pearl Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodMother-of-pearl

    31.622.723.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (23483)

    It is a box with mother of pearl to keep

    valuables. Its surface is splendidly

    decorated with the designs of

    (which means long life), peach, twin

    cranes, and flower with mother of

    pearl. The inside of it is finished with

    flower-designed paper.

    8. Hwachoham (Box)

    End of Joseon dynasty

    PaperWoodCopper alloy

    522927

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (7748)

    This is a box to keep clothes or small

    items. The frame made of wood is

    pasted with paper, painted, and then,

    lacquered.

    9. Case

    Joseon dynasty

    Paulownia

    683714.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2110)

    A box to keep clothes or small items, it

    has 4 hemispherical feet on the

    bottom.

    10. Seoryuham (Document Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    34.918.222

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2029)

    This box is to keep documents. It is

    rectangular parallelepiped shaped and

    its cover is made to be opened and

    closed.

    11. Seoryuham (Paper-WovenDocument folder)

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 311

    ring.

    36. Pyojubak ( A Gourd-ShapedPaper-Woven Vessel)

    End of Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    94.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    Round-shaped, it is expressed with

    vertical lines and is decorated with the

    design of plum tree for the back.

    37. Pyojubak ( A Gourd-ShapedPaper-Woven Vessel)

    Made age Unidentified

    Paper

    93.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    This is a paper-woven cup with a

    peach shape. The back is painted with

    the design of taeguk and its rim and

    inside are painted red.

    38. Wonangjan (Wooden Cups withA Mandarin Duck Shape)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    6.213.5

    Possessed by Sookmyung Women's

    University Museum (553, 554)

    This cup is used for wedding

    ceremony. The body and the tail are

    designedwith red and blue poem.

    39. Wooden Bottle

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    6.1923.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1420)

    This is a wooden bottle with a long

    neck and a round base. The body has

    three circular lines carved on its

    shoulder and three lined tape on its

    center. The surface is lacquered.

    40. Gourd-Shaped Paper-WovenBottle

    End of Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    4.55.720

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (24864)

    This bottle, which is made of woven

    paper, is used to carry a thing. Its neck

    is long and its body is round. Its waist

    is slender and its bottom has a base.

    41. Wooden Bottle

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    3.710.220

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (3)

    This is a container for liquid or

    powder. The mouth is directly

    connected from the body without

    neck, and the body has two separate

    hemispheres inserted into it.

    42. Wooden Bottle

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    1210

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1969)

    This is to contain water. It consists of

    the body with a three-joint bamboo

    shape, mouth, and cylindrical base.

    43. Turtle-Shaped Bottle

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperEarthenware

    244

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper Museum

    (114)

    It is a turtle shaped bottle having the

    low and wide body and the high-

    standing mouth. This is to contain

    water or liquor for picnic. It is made of

    earthenware and a paper woven string

    is attached on it.

    44. Turtle-Shaped Bottle

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWood

    25.5209

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper Museum

    (696)

    This is to contain water or liquor for

    picnic. The frame is made of wood

    and its surface is pasted with paper

    and then, painted. The cover is made

    of wood too.

    45. Bosigi (Wooden Small Bowl)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    Body: 106.2

    Cover: 10.52.3

    Possessed by Possessed by The

    National Folk Museum of Korea (1640)

    This small and low bowl is for side

    dishes. The center of the cover is

    high, and the center of the top is

    rounded with a round projected tape.

    Inside the cover, there is a hump

    suitable for the body. The surface is

    lacquered.

    46. Jiseungbosigi(Paper-Woven Case with Cover)

    Joseon dynasty

    10.510.5

    Possessed by Paper Museum (564,

    565)

    This case is made of paper woven. It

    consists of the cover and the body,

    which is finishedwith lacquer.

    47. Daejeop (Wooden Bowl)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    16.510.37

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1968)

    The top is wide and the height is low.

    This bowl has no cover and is round-

    shaped. Its bottom has a low base, and

    the surface is lacquered.

    48.Daejeop (Paper Bowl)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    21.5117

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2061)

    The bottom is narrow, but the mouth

    is wide. It is paper-woven and is

    paintedwith oil overall.

    49. Chanhap (Tier of Side-DishBoxes)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    Body: 12 12 23.8

    Cover: 10 10 4.7

    Possessed by The National Folk

    310 -

    This is a paper woven brush case. The

    inside and the outside are made

    separately and then, combined

    together. The inside is scatteredly

    spaced while the outside is densely

    madewith a black tape.

    24. Piltong (Brush Case withHexagon Shape)

    Made age Unidentified

    Paper

    13.310.79.3

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This is a brush case. A hexagonal

    paper tube is pasted with colored

    paper and then, enclosed with a black

    tape. The lower part of the case is

    pasted with paper in three folds, and

    its legs are decorated with punghyel.(small decorations made horizontally).

    25. Sijeonjipan (Stamp)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    13251.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (21113)

    This is a wooden stamp used to design

    the Korean paper. On the square

    board, an orchid and the letters of

    are carved. The top has a

    string on it.

    26. Sijeonji (Colored Paper)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    13.323.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (4606)

    This paper was used for writing a letter

    or poem. 18 kinds of paper such as

    grassbee, flowerbutterfly,

    pomegranate, Japaness apricot tree,

    etc. are available.

    27. Gobi (Letter Rack)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    11.735.57.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1734)

    On the wooden board, a letter case is

    hung. The designs of, the Eight

    Trigrams for divination, and flower are

    carved.

    28. Jijang-gobi (Letter Rack)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWood

    22.1122.110.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2009)

    The main frame is made of wood and

    then pasted with paper. The top is

    covered with bamboo ribs. It has total

    5 sections: the three sections in the

    middle are thick and the two sections

    at both ends are made thin in

    consideration of the letter type. It is

    decorated with the designs of,

    ,,, bat, butterfly and

    dragon.

    29. Juji (Rolled Paper)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    4554 : 24.5

    5844 : 265

    5841 : 26.55

    4557 : 24.55

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (4554, 5844, 5841,

    4557)

    This is paper of roll type used for

    writing. Paper of five colors (yellow,

    pink, sky blue, light green and purple)

    is horizontally connected long, which

    is rolled on a spindle.

    3. Dietary life

    30. Gonggosang (Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    4327.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (23437)

    This is a table that food is put on or

    that carries food. It is called beonsang.

    The top plate is 12-angled and the

    design ofis pierced into the four

    sides.

    31. Jiseungban (Paper-WovenTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    16.541

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2229)

    This is a table that food is put on or

    that carries food. It is made of woven

    paper and then pasted with paper

    again. The top plate, the rim and the

    legs are 12-angled. Each side of the

    legs is pierced with the design of.

    32. Pyojubak (A Gourd-ShapedWooden Vessel)

    1920

    Wood

    95

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (16646)

    Egg-shaped cup, it has no design on it.

    There is a small round board and a

    ring on its top. It is black lacquered.

    33. Pyojubak (A Gourd-ShapedWooden Vessel)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    8.53.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    Made of wood, it is peach-shaped. On

    the back, a design is sculpted. It is

    lacquered and has a ring which makes

    it possible to hang on the wall.

    34. Pyojubak (A Gourd-ShapedPaper Vessel)

    End of Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    94.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This is a 10-angled cup with paper

    pasted. There are a ring on the sides

    and a design of plum tree on the back.

    35. Pyojubak (A Gourd-ShapedPaper Vessel)

    Made age Unidentified

    Wood

    10.58.53.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    Peach-shaped, this cup has

    decorations of twig and leaf, and a

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 313

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1366)

    Wooden knife, it is designed with pine

    and house. On its surface, there is a set

    of silver spoon and chopsticks, which

    are decorated with a leaf for fixing.

    Both ends and the middle are taped

    with a metal, and on the middle, there

    is a round ring for string.

    62. Jiseungjangdo (Paper-WovenEncased Ornamental Knife)

    Made age Unidentified

    PaperMetal

    33.53.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This is a small portable knife for self-

    protection and decoration. The whole,

    except for the blade, is made of paper

    woven so it is very light. The inside is

    made of paper first and then, covered

    with woven paper.

    63. Jongijangdo (Paper Encased-Ornamental Knife)

    Made age Unidentified

    Paper

    212

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    Bamboo is used to make the frame

    and paper, like leather, is used to

    cover the rim. Both ends and the

    middle are decorated with the design

    of comb teeth. A straight-lined groove

    is made on both sides, and a big ring

    made of jewel is attached to the

    middle for string.

    64. Binyeoham (Ornamental HairpinCase)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    4687.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2291)

    This is a box to keep ornamental

    hairpins. The cover is opened and

    closed horizontally and there is a

    support in it for two hairpins.

    65. Binyeoham (Ornamental HairpinCase)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWoodSilk

    306.85.5

    Support: 961.8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(791)

    This is a box to keep ornamental

    hairpins. Its cover is made to be

    opened and closed. There is a support

    in it for a single hairpin, and the

    support can be taken out. On the top

    and four sides, the design of peony is

    carved.

    66. Namakshin (Wooden Shoes)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    25.57.516

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(21059)

    The shoes are made by carving out the

    inside of wood. They are for rainy or

    cloudy days. The heel is molded sole

    and the front has knot designs.

    67. Wooden Shoetrees

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    14, 8, 8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24424, -27, -30, -37,

    -40, -41)

    This is a last to shapewooden shoes.

    68. Jichongmituri (Paper-WovenShoes)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperHemp

    24.564

    Important Folk Material No. 241

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(11165)

    The shoes are made of paper. The

    fringe is made of thinly woven paper

    and especially, the bottom and the top

    fringe is made of hemp rope.

    69. Paper-Woven Shoetrees

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper Hemp

    2436.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    This is a couple of lasts to make the

    form of shoes. The front is shaped in

    an oval ring and the back is finished

    with a cylinder shape.

    70. Unhye (Paper Shoes)

    Early 20th Century

    2578.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(25002)

    The shoes are low-cut for females. The

    fringe and the back are made of paper.

    They have hobnails on the bottom,

    and the back and the lower side are

    pasted with paper. The toe is

    embossed.

    71. Spectacles Case

    Later Joseon dynasty

    BambooSkin hair

    165.5Length of the string 13

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(21065)

    This is a case to keep spectacles. The

    edge is a cylinder-shape and has a

    cover. On the front, the letter of

    and a phoenix are designed, and on

    the back, a flower design is carved up

    to the cover.

    72. Paper-Woven Spectacles Case

    Made age Unidentified

    Paper

    18.58.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(15198)

    This is a portable case to keep

    spectacles. The frame is made of paper

    and then, pasted with paper woven.

    The connecting part of the cover and

    the body have different paper woven

    for decoration. The string and the

    decorations for the case are made of

    woven paper too. The string is cross-

    attached to both ends in the case.

    73. Spectacles case

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    167.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24798)

    This is a case to keep spectacles. Its

    frame is made of paper which is

    folded several times, and then, pasted

    with paper again. In overall, it is

    312 -

    Museum of Korea (2061)

    This is a container for food. Its front

    cover is grooved round so that the

    cover can be opened up. The drawer

    can be pushed forward to open. There

    is a handle on the top.

    50. Hap (Paper Case with Cover)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    239.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (21036)

    This is a food container made of

    paper . It is made in the technique of

    jiho (making paper wet in water andmixingwith glue).

    51. Basket

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Bush Clover

    2927

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (4715)

    This is to keep grains. Bush clover is

    woven round up and the base is

    square-shaped.

    52. Paper-Woven Basket

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    15117.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1406)

    This is to keep or carry things. It has

    wide bottom, but it gets narrower up

    to the mouth. Paper is woven to be a

    cylinder and the outside is dyed black.

    4. Clothing

    53. Manggeontong (Wooden Casefor Manggeon)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    9.514.3

    Important Folk Material No. 241

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (11174)

    This case made of wood is octagonal.

    Rings are attached to both sides in

    order for strings to be put into, and the

    length of each side is 8.9cm.

    54. Manggeontong (Paper Case forManggeon)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    7.813.7

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This is an octagonal paper case. The

    frame is made of paper and its

    surface is decorated with designs. It

    is separated into the cover and the

    body, which have rings for hanging.

    55. Manggeontong (Paper-WovenCase for Manggeon)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    611

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    An octagonal frame made of paper is

    surrounded with densely woven

    paper. The cover is octagonal too,

    which has a knob with a triangle

    shape for decorations. The knot to tie

    the string is made of paper woven.

    56. Tanggeontong (Skull Cap Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    20.828.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (4)

    This is a case to keep skull caps. It is

    made of light and strong wood. Both

    sides have rings for strings. On the

    front and the back, there are hinges,

    which is good for closing and

    opening.

    57. Tanggeontong (Skull Cap Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperBamboo

    21.322

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (6135)

    Made of light and strong wood, paper

    or bamboo, it is generally in the same

    shape as a skull cap. On the top, there

    is a paper woven string for carrying.

    The Eight Trigrams for divination and

    taeguk designs made of paper are

    decorated.

    58. Gatjip (Hat Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    16.53924

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(781)

    This is a case to keep gat (Korean

    traditional hat). It is made in the same

    shape as gat - octagonal chongmoja

    (the upper part of gat in the shape of

    upset cup) put on octagonal brim. It is

    painted red and covered with

    decorations. The inside is pasted with

    red paper and it has a cross-shaped

    fixing board. Each side is combined

    with thread to support the brim.

    59. Gatjip (Hat Case)

    19th Century

    PaperBamboo

    4219.5

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper Museum

    (173)

    This is a case to keep gat (Korean

    traditional hat). The frame is made of

    bamboo and is pasted with paper to

    be hemispherical. Half of the bottom is

    made to be opened. A string is put on

    the vertex so it is easy to lift. The

    design of the Eight Trigrams for

    divination made of colored paper is

    attached to the lower part, and the

    design of taeguk, on the bottom.

    60. Mokjangdo (Wooden EncasedOrnamental Knife)

    Joseon dynasty

    BambooMetal

    281.8

    Important Folk Material No. 13

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(5012)

    Two bamboos are connected: one is

    for knife and the other seems for

    chopsticks, but the chopsticks are not

    available now. Two ends and the

    middle are decorated with splendid

    metal.

    61. Mokjangdo (Wooden EncasedOrnamental Knife)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodMetal

    17.61.60.9

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 315

    piercedwith the design of pine tree.

    87. Gaksi-Hahoetal (Mask)

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Wood

    27.528

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(18797)

    This mask has a shape of bride, which

    appears for the wedding part of mask

    dance performance for Hawoe

    Byeolsingut (a shaman ritual). Made of

    precisely sculpted wood, it is

    lacquered. The head top is separately

    made and then, connected, which has

    a string on it.

    88. Gaksi-Hahoetal (Mask)

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Paper

    29.732

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(25036)

    This is a paper sample of the mask

    with a shape of bride which appears

    for the wedding part of mask dance

    performance for Hawoe Byeolsingut

    (a shaman ritual). It is made in jihotechnique (making paper wet in

    water and mixing with glue). The

    front is painted and the back is

    covered with oil.

    89. Chwibari-Bongsantal (Mask)

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Wood

    3120

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(9378)

    Four wrinkles on the forehead (in

    scarlet color) are roughly raised left

    and right based on three wens. On the

    wrinkles, white and black vertical lines

    are drawn, and the top of the wens is

    painted in gold color.

    90. Chwibari-Bongsantal (Mask)

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Paper

    41.523

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(9379)

    A black spot is made on a red plane.

    Seven wrinkles on the forehead are

    roughly raised left and right based on

    6 wens, on which white and black

    lines are drawn. White silver foil is put

    on the wens, the apple of the eye, and

    the ridge of the nose.

    91. Baduk Board

    10104 - Baduk Board

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    3737.229

    Drawer: 13135

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(10104)

    Square parallelepepid shaped, it has a

    drawer for baduk stones and the

    drawer has a semicircular handle on it

    for easily taking the stones out.

    92. Turtle-Shaped Paper BadukBoard

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    Board: 723814.5

    Cover: 63.5435

    Possessed by Chonnam National

    University Museum

    Pasted with several sheets of the

    Korean paper, this board is turtle

    shaped. It has 361 intersecting points

    and 9 hwajeom (a point that three

    horizontal and vertical lines meet). On

    the right and the left of the board,

    there are grooves that baduk stones

    are put into.

    .Woodenware Items:

    Mokmul

    1. Soban (A small table)

    1) Soban - Classified by TopPlate

    93. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    423125

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23542)

    This is a table on which food is put or

    which carries food. The ceiling panel is

    square shaped, which is made of

    plank. The four corners are rounded.

    The cloud-shaped panel has a flower

    design and the legs with stools are

    round.

    94. Hwahyeongban (Flower-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    38.224.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23348)

    This table is called Iljuban or

    Dangakban (a single-post table). The

    ceiling panel is round and the rim (in

    plank) is flower (8 leaves) shaped. On

    the side of the panel, there is a line

    carving of flower shape and under the

    plate, there are cloud-shaped carvings.

    95. Wonban (Circle-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    43.229

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23446)

    This is a table on which food is put or

    which carries food. It has a dog's foot

    shape. The ceiling panel and the rim

    are round plank, and there are 8 tartar

    nails to fix cloud-shaped carvings.

    96. Wonban (Circle-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    31.220.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23449)

    This is a table on which food is put or

    which carries food. It is tiger's foot

    shaped. The cloud-shaped panel is

    decorated with a flower design, and

    the legs have spiral decorations and

    stools.

    97. Doudecagon-Shaped Table

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    39.527.2

    314 -

    colored black and no design is added.

    5. Social system

    74. Chaekgap (Book Case)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    26.237.241.6

    Possessed by Seoul Museum of History

    This is a case to keep or carry a book.

    Made of wood, it has a handle on it to

    lift and openclose the cover.

    75.Chaekgap (Book Case)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    10145.5

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This is a book case with a cover.

    The case, made of wood, is finished

    with paper having a design of

    neunghwapan (a board with delicate

    patterns, which is used for the cover

    of a book), and then, taped. Each

    side is decorated with bamboo and

    lattice strip. For opening and

    closing, a paper woven ring is

    attached to the cover.

    76. Wooden Wild Goose

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    319.516

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2578)

    It was used for wedding ceremony.

    The head is separately made, which is

    fixed into the body by use of nails.

    77. Paper-Woven Wild Goose

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    2914

    Possessed by Korean Deung-jan

    Museum

    It is made of woven paper, which is

    used for ceremonies. The wings and

    the face are colored.

    78. Gunpowder Case

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    21116

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2554)

    This is to keep gunpowder. It is turtle-

    shaped and its head is separable. The

    connecting part between the body and

    the cover is cut slant, having its inside

    empty. Both sides have a ring for

    string.

    79. Gunpowder Cases

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    20.68

    Possessed by Korea ArmyMuseum(21007)

    This case, which is paper woven, is to

    keep gunpowder. The cover is

    separable.

    80. Hwasaltong (Quiver)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodMother of pearl

    977.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2215)

    This is to keep arrows. The body is

    made of wood, which is covered with

    mother of pearl. The entrance and the

    support are made of metal. Hinges

    and a lock are available to close

    open the cover. It has rings on its two

    sides so it can be carried on shoulder.

    81. Hwasaltong (Quiver)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    89.55

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2256)

    This is to keep arrows. The overall

    shape is cylindrical and bamboo is

    used. The letter of, fret, and

    geometric patterns are engraved on

    the surface.

    82. Hwasaltong (Quiver)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    905.5

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper Museum

    This is to keep arrows, which is made

    of rolled paper. The edge of the cover

    is banded with silk and the body is

    pasted with wood. The letter of

    on the cover and the letters of

    on the body are carved.

    6. Rest and Play

    83. Paper Pillow

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    371415.5

    Possessed by Chonbuk National

    University Museum(3735)

    This is to rest the head when lying

    down.Made in jiho technique (makingpaper wet in water and mixing with

    glue), it is tiger-shaped. The frame is

    pasted with paper and then, painted.

    The letters of are written on the

    back.

    84. Mokchim (Wooden Pillow)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    8716.5

    Owned by Suh Seok

    This is a wooden case for manggeon

    (a hairband to wear before wearing a

    skull cap). The inside of a wood is

    carved out so the whole is connected,

    having a shape of square.

    85. Anchim (Paper Pillow)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    5031

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1976)

    this is a big pillow. It is possible to rest

    an arm on it and lean. It is made of

    paper woven strings.

    86. Mokchim (Wooden Pillow)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    10.45.813.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(22356)

    This wooden pillow is rectangular

    parallelepiped shaped. Four boards

    are combined to be the frame. In the

    frame, a board is inserted, and it is

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 317

    of an imaginary flower) and trimmed

    with sangdae. Jungdae is ornamentedon the legs.

    109. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    43.834.525.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23556)

    With tongyeongban-shaped, it's thetable on which kitchen wares are set

    or carried. Cheonpan is square-shapedand brim is trimmed. The four edges

    are round-shaped and a single line is

    engraved on the inside of brim. Ungakis engraved with plantain and other

    flower patterns are fixed between the

    legs.

    110. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    5339.528.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23566)

    It's the table on which kitchen wares

    are set or carried. Cheonpan is square-shaped and brim is trimmed. The four

    edges are round-shaped. Unpan isprojected and ornamented with

    jungdae. Legs are bamboo joint-shapedwith leg props.

    111. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    513629

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23549)

    As a tongyeongban type, the square-shaped cheonpan is fixed with brim(the sharp edges of a pillar). The four

    edges are angled and attached with

    edge-fixing patch. A round-shaped

    legs that are narrowed at the bottom

    are fixed into cheonpan. Oval-shapeprojected ungak is fixed between thelegs.

    112. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    50.33630.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23512)

    Cheonpan is square-shaped, and brimis round-trimmed. The four angled

    edges are attached with pads. The

    Rose of Sharon patterned ungak that isfixed with legs is attached to

    cheonpan. beaded hanging screenshaped jungdae and leg props wereattached to the legs. On both sides

    under the cheonpan, rectangularspoon cases with a lid are hanging.

    3) Soban-Region Classification

    113. Hajuban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    332823

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(536)

    It's the table on which kitchen wares

    are set or carried. It's 4-angle shaped,

    and its ungak is a pair of arabesque.

    114. Gangwonban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    4734.227

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23502)

    Cheonpan is square-shaped, and rim isround-trimmed. Ungak and pangakare fixed under the cheonpan. On thelatter, a prop is attached and coated.

    115. Chungjuban (Quadrangular-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    42.530

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23376)

    12-angled cheonpan and small dog-shaped table. Cheonpan and rim is

    connected in one. Ungak and legs areattached under the cheonpan. Legs aredirectly connected to cheonpan. Theyare connected to unpan. A leg prop is

    attached and there is a round dug track

    on the bottom of cheonpan.

    116. Najuban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    43.734.225.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23559)

    Cheonpan is square-shaped, and brimis trimmed. The four edges are round-

    shaped and single line is engraved on

    the inside of brim. Leg prop is attached

    on bamboo joint-shaped legs.-

    shaped ungak is fixed into the bottomof cheonpan, jungdae is wrappedaround themiddle of the legs.

    117. Najuban (Flower-Shaped Table)Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    47.137.326.6

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23349)

    118. Tongyeongban (Square-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    40.231.522

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23529)

    Peony pattern is engraved on

    cheonpan. The four edges are round-shaped, and horse foot-shaped legs

    are fixed into cheonpan. leg prop isalso attached. Ungak is engraved witharabesque pattern and finished with

    bamboo joint-shaped sangdae.Jungdae is wrapped around the legs.

    w-shaped grip is fixed on the drawer.

    119. Tongyeongban (Square-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    42.334.524

    Possessed by The National Folk

    316 -

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23422)

    The ceiling panel and the rim are in

    doudecagon plank. On the top of the

    rim, there is a hollow. The legs are

    tiger's foot shaped and the surface has

    a decoration of twisted lines.

    98. Octagon-Shaped Table

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    42.526.8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23439)

    This is a table on which food is put or

    which carries food. The ceiling panel

    and the rim are octagonal. The plane

    of the plate and the side of the rim are

    surrounded with line carvings. The

    legs have a shape of a tiger's foot,

    which are inserted into the cloud-

    shaped carvings and attached to the

    plate. It has a stool.

    2) Soban - Classified by Legs

    99. Hojokban (Tiger's Foot-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    48.333

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(743)

    This table is painted red in overall. Its

    legs are shaped like tiger's foot, and

    the top plate is engraved with a round

    line. The cloud-shaped board and legs

    have decorations.

    100. Hojokban (Tiger's Foot-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    41.529

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23397)

    12-angled cheonpan and tiger's foot-shaped small table. Cheonpan and rimwere connected in one. Unpan is

    below the cheonpan, and legs areplugged into unpan.

    101. Hojokban (Tiger's Foot-Shaped Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    41.526.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23404)

    12-angled cheonpan and tiger's foot-shaped small table. Cheonpan and rimwere connected in one. Unpan isbelow cheonpan, and legs areplugged into unpan. Unpan isprojected and leg props are attached to

    the under the legs.

    102. Hojokban (Tiger's Foot-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    39.527

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23419)

    12-angled cheonpan and tiger's foot-shaped small table. Unpan is belowcheonpan, and legs are plugged intounpan. Horse-leg shapes are

    decorated on the legs.

    103. Gujokban (Dog's Foot-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    4128

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23375)

    It's called gujokban (a dog's foot-shaped table), on which kitchen wares

    are set. Cheonpan and rim are 12-angled, which is consisted of a single

    table. Legs are fixed into cloud-shaped

    carving on the edge and attached to

    the cheonpan.

    104. Gujokban (Dog's Foot-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    4533.526.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23583)

    It's the table on which kitchen wares

    are set or carried. Cheonpan is square-shaped and brim is erected, making it

    gwaban-shaped. Legs are dog's foot-

    shaped, and leg props are attached.

    105. Iljuban (Single column Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    34.222

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23346)

    It's called dangakban or hoejeonban.Cheonpan is round-shaped and brimis 12-leave stake-shaped. Ungak(Cloud-shaped carving on the edge) is

    attached under cheonpan. Four legsare twisted into one, and it is attached

    to the center below cheonpan. The legstay is cross cloud-shaped.

    106. Hoejeonban (Revolving Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    60.539

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23432)

    It's the table on which kitchen wares

    are set or carried. Cheonpan wasmade with 2 boards attached. Its 12-

    angled brim is fixed in separately.

    Under the cheonpan, short ungak isattached.

    107. Tongban (Round Table)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    372226

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(5664)

    It's made of a single tree in whole.

    Cheonpan is round-shaped and legesare cone-shaped. Four circles are

    engraved on the table, and the stay is

    also line-engraved.

    108. Sagakban (Square-ShapedTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    48.53726.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23535)

    It's the table on which kitchen wares

    are set or carried. As a tongyeongban,Cheonpan is square-shaped and brimis trimmed. Ungak is decorated bybosanghwamun (Two palmette petals

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 319

    Cheonpan is a roll of toilet paper-shaped, and octagonal swastika

    pattern is engraved on the chest door.

    Crane, turtle, etc. are engraved on the

    front and side panels. Each joint is bird

    foot- and-shaped. Legs are tiger

    foot- and-shaped.

    130. Meoritjang (Single Chest ofDrawers at the Bed Side)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodCopper Alloy

    71.441.472.8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (22630)

    Furniture in which things are stored.

    Three drawers are set on the upper

    part, and arrow-shaped ring is fixed on

    each drawer. The chest door panels

    are on both sides of the front, and

    white ring is fixed on the flower-

    patterned front The feldspar is black-

    coated

    131. Gyeongsang (Desk)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    7633.336.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2043)

    A short desk which is used while

    reading a book or Chinese classics of

    Confucianism. A door is fixed on the

    middle of the front. On the flank, other

    spaces are given. A roll of toilet paper-

    shaped panels are fixed on both sides

    of cheonpan, and the legs are tigerfoot-shaped.

    132. Mungap (Stationery Chest)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    7633.336.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (12191)

    Chest in which books or things are

    put. The front and pillar are made of

    Zelkova trees. Planes are made of pine

    trees. There are 5 chest doors on the

    front and 5 drawers inside. There is a

    lock on the central door.

    133. Gakesuri (Case for SafeKeeping of Valuables)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    3255.540

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1541)

    A rectangular hexahedral box in which

    valuable items are deposited. The front

    door is open being pulled up to the

    cheonpan. A long single drawer andeight small ones are arranged inside.

    134. Yeonsang (Bamboo InkstoneTable)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    321925

    Owned by Suh Seok

    It's made of wood, and its legs are dog

    foot-shaped. A space is given under

    the lid for inkstone. There also are

    drawers on the sides.

    135. Palgeori (Armrest)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    48.61326

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1746)

    Furniture where arms can be put on

    and rested. Cheonpan and the panelon the bottom are connected through

    the pillar on the middle. There are four

    pillars, and lotus buds are decorated

    between them.

    136. Gobi (Letter Rack)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    3813

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (7749)

    A case in which a letter or a roll of

    paper is put. it is hung on the wall.

    With two bamboo stems as pillars, six

    horizontal strings are connected

    between them.

    137. Piltong (Brush case made ofBamboo)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    16.511

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1397)

    A case in which writing brushes are

    put. It's slender bamboo tube-shaped

    and consisted of 4 layers inside that are

    different in height. There are 76 cases

    in total.

    138. Jitong (Paper Roll Stand)

    Joseon dynasty

    Bamboo

    389

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1427)

    A case in which a letter is put or

    carried. It's made of a single bamboo

    joint with its ends closed. The top is

    used as a lid. Korean verse is engraved

    on its body. The swastika is engraved

    on the top and bottom.

    . Paperware Items:

    Jimul

    1. Personal MiscellaneousThings

    139. Ssamji (Paper-Woven Pouch)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    PaperWood

    When folded: 2311.2

    When unfolded: 2350

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(21022)

    A type of bag which carries things. It's

    rectangular shaped with paper-woven

    pouch at the bottom. Four-level long

    string can be tied.

    140. Jigap (Wallet)

    End of the 19th Century

    Paper

    When folded: 20.811.2

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24857)

    Paper money or documents are put or

    carried. It's made of paper-woven

    string. The inside space is properly

    divided.

    141. Daeya (Paper-WovenWashbasin)

    Joseon dynasty

    318 -

    Museum of Korea (23553)

    2. Bandaji

    120. Pyeongando Bandaji (ClothesChest with a Hinged Front Flap)

    19th Century

    Pine treePearIron

    854281

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (17445)

    The table and side lace is decorated

    with pine tree. The front is

    ornamented with chinaberry tree. The

    center is attached with pine tree. Iron

    Sungsungi feldspar is attached.

    121. Gaeseong Bandaji (ClothesChest with a Hinged Front Flap)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    WoodCopper Alloy

    9544.585.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (24346)

    Furniture in which things are stored.

    With a hole hinge on the middle of the

    front, lock attached drawers are

    attached on the middle of both sides.

    -shaped character is patterned on

    the chest door. Butterfly-shaped hinge,

    Yakgwa (sunflower-shaped Koreanfried cake made of wheat flour)-

    shaped Gwangdujeong (button-shaped clasp) are attached on the

    chest door. On the middle, Yakgwa-shaped Gamjabi (-shaped chest-form fixers) and projected swastika

    patterned fixers are attached. Three

    arrow-shaped iron rings are attached

    on the middle, and arrow-shaped grip

    is fixed on the drawer.

    122. Gyeonggido Bandaji (ClothesChest with a Hinged Front Flap)

    1920

    Wood

    893870

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (6203)

    With woven-rectangular hexahedron

    pattern, cheonpan is dovetailed. Thefront is spool-shaped, and fish-shaped

    lock is attached. Five gourd-shaped

    hinges are fixed. On both sides of the

    front, arrow-patterned iron rings are

    attached on bat pattern.

    123. Gangwondo Bandaji (ClothesChest with a Hinged Front Flap)

    Early 20th Century

    Wood

    9036.7103.8

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (17071)

    A half of the front is a hinged front

    flap, which is opened and closed,

    being pulled down. On the front, iron

    and eternal-youth herb pattern is

    decorated. bat and semilunar

    patterned iron rings are also attached

    on the front.

    124. Chungcheong-do Bandaji(Clothes Chest with a HingedFront Flap)

    Joseon dynasty

    ZelkovaIron

    9243.584

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (6202)

    Cheonpan on the upper part isdovetailed with a hinged front. A lock

    is attached on the front. Four pony tail-

    shaped hinges are fixed on the front.

    Candle-shaped items are decorated on

    the four edges of the front panel and

    the hinged front. Arrow-shaped iron

    rings are fixed on the flank.

    125. Gyeongsangdo Bandaji(Clothes Chest with a HingedFront Flap)

    Joseon dynasty

    Pine TreeIron

    9140.279.4

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (5926)

    Dovetailed and rectangular hexahedron

    pattern with a cap. The eight signs of

    divination and fylfot patterned lock is

    fixed. The four engraved fylfot

    patterned hinges are fixed. In the

    middle, 2 pairs of gourds are engraved.

    Arrow-shaped iron rings are attached

    on the flank and side panels.

    126. Jeollado Bandaji (Clothes

    Chest with a Hinged Front Flap)1821

    Pine TreeIron

    874172

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (6200)

    As woven-rectangular hexahedron

    pattern, cheonpan is decorated on theupper part with hinged front flap). The

    front is flower-patterned with lock

    attached. Three pony tail-shaped

    hinges are fixed on the front.

    127. Jejudo Bandaji (Clothes Chestwith a Hinged Front Flap)

    Joseon dynasty

    ZelkovaMetal

    94.24773.1

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (6219)

    With dovetailed rectangular

    hexahedron pattern, cheonpan is puton the upper part. The chest has a

    hinge on front. The three projected

    fylfot-patterned hinges are decorated

    on the front. On both sides of the

    front, two arrow-shaped iron rings are

    attached.

    3. Sarangbang (Furniture inApartments of the Masterof a House)

    128. Sabang Takja (Square Shelf)

    Joseon dynasty

    Wood

    53.553.5179.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2576)

    Furniture where book and things are

    shelved. It's a 4-story shelf with all

    sides open. The ceiling side is

    bamboo-caned and the bottom side is

    fixedwith reed-mat.

    129. Book Chest

    Joseon dynasty

    Pine TreeIron

    171.844128

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (2177)

    Furniture in which books are stored.

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 321

    handle is shaped like bamboo with

    five joints. The wooden frame is

    shaped like a square pillar, and the

    four sides are pasted with Korean

    paper.

    3. Food and Clothing

    155. Satgat (Oiled Paper Hat)

    Made age Unidentified

    PaperWood

    9618

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(4405)

    This is a umbrella-shaped paper hat

    whose oiled paper is designed to hold

    36 strips lengthwise and 5 strips

    crosswise. A bundle of strips rolled like

    a cylinder allows you to put it on your

    head.

    156. Galmo (Raincover for a Hat)

    Later Joseon dynasty

    PaperBamboo

    32.5

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper

    Museum(574, 575)

    This hat was put on to cover gat (an

    oiled paper hat) in rainy days. This is

    shaped like a peaked hat with a folded

    piece of oil paper.

    157. Samhap Sangja (Three TieredBox)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    4325.510

    40229

    36188

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper

    Museum(348)

    This item is a set of three boxes for

    clothes or home valuables. The boxes

    are decorated with pieces of paper in

    five cardinal colors. Their edges are

    finishedwith bamboo.

    158. Jijangdonggori (Round WickerSuitcase)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWicker

    26.526

    Owned by Suh Seok

    This item is a round suitcase made of

    wicker and paper. The middle is

    dented, and the cover is floral-

    patterned on the middle part of its

    surface. There is a bat-shaped design

    found in each edge.

    159. Banjitgori (Paper Sewing Box)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    2912.5

    Owned by Suh Seok

    This is a workbox made of paper.

    Bamboo strips are placed in a round

    shape on the bottom. On its four sides

    are found folk paintings of deer,

    wonang (a pair of love-birds), crane,flower birds, and carp.

    160. Plate

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    13.53

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(21037)

    This plate is lacquered after application

    of the jiho technique.

    161. Jiseungjegi (Paper-WovenRitual Plate)

    End of the 19th Century

    Paper

    13.17

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24851)

    This is a flat paper-woven plate with a

    high bottom. Themiddle of its top side

    is concaved. The bottom is cylindrical

    and its connection is fixed with a

    paper-woven string.

    162. Paper-Woven Kettle

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    1715.5

    Possessed by Korea ArmyMuseum (143003)

    This is a paper-woven kettle with ears

    and a handle. The twisted paper is

    rubbedwith oil.

    163. Sikji (Tablecloth)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    67.248

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24759)

    This is a rectangular oil paper designed

    to cover a table or food. Colored-paper

    patterns shaped like a butterfly are

    found on the four sides, the middle,

    and the four corners.

    164. Basket

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    1811

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2005)

    This is a paper-woven vessel with a

    cylindrical octagon shape. The top is

    flat, while the bottom is inclined and

    concaved. Patterns are created using

    black-dyed paper.

    4. Society and Culture

    165. Eosahwa (Paper Flower)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperBamboo

    165.1

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(23918)

    This item is a paper flower that in the

    Joseon Dynasty the king granted to an

    individual who had won the first place

    in the civil service examination.

    166. Paper Toy

    After the Restoration of Independence

    PaperBamboo

    16.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(20559)

    This items is a paper with toy two

    handles on its base side. Pleated thin

    color paper is pasted between thick

    paper boards.

    167. Animal Kite

    After the Restoration of Independence

    PaperBamboo

    3366

    Possessed by The National Folk

    320 -

    Paper

    307.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(4067)

    It's used when washing hands or face.

    With low-cut shape, it's coated with oil

    in overall.

    142. Yogang (Paper-WovenChamber Pot)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    15.58

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper

    Museum(107)

    A pot in which a person urinates. It's

    placed in a room. It's made of paper-

    woven string and coated with lacquer.

    Diamond-pattern is decorated around

    the pot, and the lid is curved.

    143. Jari (Paper-Woven Mat)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    17989.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(5025)

    Mat on which a person sits. It's made

    of Korean paper woven string and

    coatedwith oil.

    144. Bangseok (Paper-Woven)Cushion

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    66

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1732)

    Small mat on which a person sits. It's

    made of paper-woven octagonal

    cushion. It's colored from the center to

    the outside with colored paper.

    145. Fan

    1901

    PaperBamboo

    31

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24341)

    146. Sunshade Fan

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodBamboo

    55.59079.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea (1749)

    It's a foldable fan, consisted of 28 strips

    of bamboo. It unfolds up to 360

    decorated with various colored papers.

    On the middle, paper string is

    ornamented.

    147. Paper Umbrella

    Made age Unidentified

    PaperBamboo

    74102

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(25006)

    Paper umbrella is made of bamboo

    strips. Butterfly pattern is decorated on

    the umbrella. On the end of umbrella,

    a string can be hung.

    148. Side Pocket

    Made age Unidentified

    Paper

    25039 : 32.322.4

    25040 : 1315.1

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea

    It's worn around the waist. It's made of

    paper. A string is tied on the top.

    149. Jitong (Paper-Roll Stand)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    16.114.3

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(2575)

    A case in which a roll of paper is put.

    It's an octagonal case ornamented with

    various papers. On each face,

    projected orchid and bamboo patterns

    are decorated.

    2. Lighting Apparatus

    150. Jojokdeung (Hand Lantern)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperWoodIron

    3716

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(3376)

    This is a hand lantern with a wooden

    handle fixed on the round-shaped

    thick oil paper. On the inside, there is

    a holder into which a candle can be

    put.

    151. Jeopdeung (Folding Lantern)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperIronWood

    2312.5

    gripe 13.5

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper

    Museum(611)

    This item is an octagon-shaped lantern

    made using pieces of oiled and twisted

    paper. This lantern has a holder into

    which a candle can be stuck on the

    bottom. Awire loop fixed on the cover

    makes it convenient to carry the

    lantern.

    152. Gireumbaji (Oil Spout)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperIron

    8.85

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(3302)

    This is a pan designed to catch lamp

    oil or impurities. The paper-twisted

    pan has a chains hanger.

    153. Chorong (Paper-CoveredLantern)

    Joseon dynasty

    PaperBamboo

    57.527.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(3312)

    This is a lighting apparatus which was

    fixed on the ceiling or set up at the

    main floored room. This lantern has a

    loop hanger and a candlestick holder.

    A satgat-shaped lantern is framed with

    bamboo in its lower part, and oiled

    paper is applied on the surface.

    154. Sudeung (Hand Lantern)

    Joseon dynasty

    WoodIronPaper

    161626

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1529)

    This is a portable lighting apparatus

    with a handle. The upper side of the

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 323

    and 23 Hongdo-byeol-geonhwaflowers were used during

    Hyegyeonggung Hong's 61st birthdaybanquet.

    178. Jibyeolganhwa (also calledHongdo-ganhwa)

    This was most frequently used with

    the geonhwa flower. Ganhwa meansthat the flower has less petals

    compared with geonhwa. It wasmainly used as a table flower in court

    banquets. Various kinds of ganhwaflowers are known to have been used

    at Hyegyeonggung Hong's 61stbirthday banquet.

    2) Bulgyo jihwa (BuddhistPaper Flower)

    179. The Yeonhwa (Lotus Flower) ofYeongsanjae.

    By Lee Kiwon.

    Yeongsanjae is a representativeBuddhist ritual that is held to offer food

    to Buddha and extol Buddhist virtues.

    The lotus flower symbolizes

    enlightenment as a flower bursting into

    bloom in the mud and is placed on a

    Buddhist altar called Yeongdan(orYeonjidan) during the ritual. Theleaves are larger than blossoms, and

    the combination of reed mace, lotus

    pips, and lotus leaves make the flower

    moremagnificent.

    180. The Jakyak (Peony) ofSuryukjae.

    By Kim Taesook.

    Suryukjae is one of Buddhist rituals.

    Jakyak (a kind of peony) is placed onGwaebuldan (a Buddhist altar) as oneof Jangeom-jihwa flowers offered forthe ritual It is famous for having

    beautiful petals and emitting a delicate

    scent and has been considered as one

    of the finest flowers together with

    Moran (a kind of peony).

    3) Musok Jihwa (Shamanicflower)

    181. Daesupalyeon of Seoulgut.By Lee Younghee.

    In fact, Daesupalyeon is an imaginaryflower that does not exist in the

    vegetable kingdom. However, it has

    always existed together with shaman

    rituals in the history and culture of

    Korea. This flower used at a shaman

    ritual called Seoulgut is decorated withthe figures of children, fairies, and the

    south-pole old man (a personified

    south pole star) and with a variety of

    birds.

    182.Saljebiof DonghaeanByeolsingut.

    By Kim Sukchul.

    Byeolsingut is a shaman ritual referringto Pungeoje(a shaman's exorcism riteto wish for a big catch) which is

    practiced every three or ten years in

    the eastern coastal region of Korea.

    The Saljebi flower, which is used forthe ritual, is known as warm-hearted

    gods' favorite flower. This flower

    implies the meaning of rebirth or

    reincarnation.

    183. Jeonggukhwa of DonghaeanByeolsingut.

    By Kim Dongyeol, Successful Learner

    of Important Intangible Cultural

    Property No. 82-A "DonghaeanByeolsingut"

    Jeonggukhwa refers to a shamanicflower used at the shaman ritual

    "Donghaean Byeolsingut." It is madein various colors such as white,

    orange, yellow, pink, and purple. The

    name was made after the shape of

    chrysanthemum carved with a chisel.

    Today, the flower is made of drawing

    paper by cutting it out with scissors.

    322 -

    Museum of Korea(4775)

    A turtle-shaped kite.

    168. Baduk-Stones Cases

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    11.67.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24847, 24848)

    This item is a pair of paper cases

    designed to put Baduk stones in.These cylindrical paper-woven cases

    are wide in their lower parts and

    concaved in the bottom.

    169. Helmet Case

    Later Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    3138.5

    Possessed by Korea ArmyMuseum

    This item is a helmet case made of

    thick paper.

    5. Occupation and Livelihood

    170. Jiseungkkuri (A Spool of PaperRibbon)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    70

    Possessed by Pan Asia Paper

    Museum(115)

    This item has a bunch of twisted and

    woven paper rolled up in a round

    shape for convenient use.

    171. Mangtaegi (Net Bag)

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Paper

    3022

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1338)

    This item is a paper bag that people

    can put things into and carry on their

    shoulder. It was made into a

    rectangular net bag using straw or

    grass wound with paper and had a

    thick paper-woven string fixed to its

    upper.

    172. Ssiattong (Seed Barrel)

    Made age unidentified

    Paper

    299221.5

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(25005)

    This is a case designed to put seeds in

    and keep grain. The case is connected

    lengthwise with two semi-cylindrical

    frames, and its surface is lacquered. It

    has a metal handle fixed on the cover

    so that it can be easily opened and

    closed.

    173. Jurumak (Net Bag)

    Joseon dynasty

    Paper

    4148

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(1743)

    This item is a paper bag used to put

    articles in and carry them. A string is

    inserted into along the upper so that

    the mouth can be effectively widened

    or narrowed. It the string is tightened

    up, then you can carry the bag on

    your shoulders.

    6. Religion and Faith

    174. Mudangtugu (ShamanistHelmet)

    Modern

    PaperCottonCopper Alloy

    2318

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(24735)

    The frame is made of metal, and the

    surface and inner side are pasted with

    hanji (Korean paper) and adorned

    with nickel. Around the backside

    cover is put cloth.

    175. Hyungbae (Embroidered PaperPatches)

    Made age unidentified

    Paper

    2020

    Owend by KoumBokhyun

    This item is a patch embroidered on

    the front and back of an official

    uniform. The person who was putting

    on the uniform could be identified by

    the patch. Shamans wore clothes with

    the patch on the breast and back

    during exorcism. The paper patch was

    made by drawing a rough sketch on

    pasted pieces of paper and then

    painting it in colors .

    176. Carp

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Paper

    1128123

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(12075)

    This item was used as an ornament at

    shaman rituals. It was made of thick

    paper on which a picture was drawn

    with red and black pens. Its caudal fin

    was strung so that the paper carp

    could be suspended.

    177. Crane

    After the Restoration of Independence

    Paperhemp

    488883

    Possessed by The National Folk

    Museum of Korea(12073)

    This item was used as an ornament at

    shaman rituals. It was made of thick

    paper, and its wings and train were

    pasted with white and dark blue

    paper, respectively. The wings and

    bodywere strung. The legs was pasted

    with yellow paper and wired to each

    other.

    7. Jihwa (Paper Flower)

    1) Gungjungsanghwa (TableFlower in a court banquet)

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 325

    1992

    1991 2

    1991 22

    1988

    1988 ,

    ()

    1988 ,

    -

    1988 1 () .

    1986 ()

    1985

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    1966 1-10

    1966 -

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    1964 ,()

    324 -

    (),(),(),()

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    .

    2004 1 :

    2003 :,

    2003

    2003 F.J.

    2003 -159

    2002

    2002

    2002 -82

    2002 -187

    2001 -

    2000 -103

    1999

    1999

    1998

    1997

    1997

    1997 -7

    1996

    1996

    1994

    1994 6-8

    1993

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 327

    1998 1

    1996 15

    1992. 2 7 :

    1990. 12 31

    1989 6 -

    1989 11

    1988 12

    1988 177

    1986 8 :

    1984 5

    1977 29

    1972 1

    .

    326 -

    2003

    2003

    2002 16

    2001

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    .

    1998 3

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    1977.8 122 1900()

    1972.12

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    .

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 329328 -

    2003

    2003 -

    2002

    2002

    2002

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    2002 -

    2002 :

    2000 -

    2000 ,,-

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    1999

    1999 :-

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    1997 -

    1995 -250

    1995

    1995

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    1994 -

    1992

    .

    1997 156

    1995.8 129

    1995.8 39

    1994.8 38

    1992 5 -

    1992 150 - :

    1992 150

    1990.3 24

    1988.8.17

    1986.1 63

    1980.12 16

    1978.8 134 ,

    1977.10. 124 ,

    1977.7 121 ,

    1977.3 117 ,

    1977.4 118 ,

    1970.4 68 :

    1967.2 2,2 ::

    1967.1 2,1 :

    1942.5.1 16 ()

    1941.12.1 11 ()

    1909.3.28 1

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 331330 -

    1992 Yanagi Muneyoshi The Way of a Craftsman Mijinsa

    1991 Hong Hee-Yu The History of Joseon Handicraft2 Gongeopjonghapchulpansa

    1991 Cultural Properties Administration A Gerneral Report of Korea Folk22nd ed. Cultural Properties Administration

    1988 Bae Man-Sil Traditional Style of Korean Wood Furniture Ewha Women's University Press

    1988 Lee Jong-Seok Folklore Craft, Craftmanship, and Craftsmen,

    Interpretation of Important Intangible Cultural Properties(Introduction)Cultural Properties Administration

    1988 Lee Jong-Seok The Problem of Viewpoint in Studies on the Korean Craft History,

    Trend of Modern Korean FineartsIljisa

    1988 Cho Dae-Il The History of Joseon Craft1 (Ancient and Medieval Times) Gwahakbaekgwasajeonjonghapchulpansa

    1986 Lee Jong-Seok Wood Craft of Korea(I, II) Youl Hwa Dang

    1985 National Museum of Korea Korean Folk Arts Tongcheonmunhwasa

    1985 Lee Jong-Seok Wood Craft,The Beauty of Korea24 JoongAng Ilbo

    1985 Jeon Sang-Beom Introduction to Arts and Crafts Hyungseul Publishing

    1985 Jin Hong-Seop Arts and Crafts Aegyeongsaneopsa

    1984 Kim Yong-Jin The History of Korean Folk Craft Hakmun Publishing

    1982 Park Yeong-Kyu Korean Wood Furniture Samsungbooks

    1982 Lee Jong-Seok Wood Craft Institute of Korean Culture, Korea University

    1982 A Catalogue of Joseon Art Exhibition Gyeonginmunhwasa yeonginbon

    1982 A General Survey of Korean Folk Culture5 (Folk Arts & Folk Crafts) Institute of Korean Culture, Korea University

    1981 Eom Gwang-Seop Craft Materials Ewha Women's University Press

    1981 Jeon Sang-Beom Craft Design Hyungseul Publishing

    1981 Choi Soon-Woo & Park Yeong-Kyu Wooden Furniture of Korea Gyeongmichulpansa

    1979 Maeng In-Jae Korean Folk Craft Hakmun Publishing

    1978 National Museum of Korea Korean Folk Arts Tongcheonmunhwasa

    1978 Kim Yong-Jin The History of Korean Folk Craft Hakmun Publishing

    1978 Yanaki Muneyoshi Craft Culture Singumunhwasa

    1974 Lee Dal-Hyeong Arts and Crafts,Research and Study for Compilation of Modern Korean Arts Dictionary Hongik University

    1974 Choi Soon-Woo & Park Yeong-Kyu Wood Craft Donghwa Publishing

    1973 Song Chan-Sik A Study of Handicraft of the Late Joseon Period Institute of Korean Studies

    1969 Ye Yong-Hae Human Cultural Assests Eomungak

    1967 Lee Kyeong-Seong Outline of Arts and Crafts Suhaksa

    1966 Ko Yu-Seop Korean Arts and Crafts1-10 The National Academy of Arts

    1966 Ko Yu-Seop Creativity of the Joseon Culture - Arts and Crafts Tongmungwan

    1964 Lee Kyeong-Seong Introduction to Arts and Crafts Suhaksa

    1964 Lee Soon-Seok Korea's Arts and Crafts,A Comperhensive Bibliography of Korean Art(Introduction) The National Academy of Arts

    References

    Ancient Literatures

    Samguksagi (The History of the Three Kingdoms)

    Goryosa (The History of Goryeo)

    Shindangseo (A New Book on Tang Daynasty)

    Donggukmunheonbigo (Reference Compilation Of Documents on Korea)

    Donggukyeojiseungnam (a geography book)

    Goryeodogyeong (a collection of records taken by Seo Geung from the Song Dynasty about his journey to Goryeo)

    Gyeonggukdaejeon (The Grand Code for State Administration)

    Joseonwangjosilnok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty)

    Daejeontongpyeon (The Comprehensive National Code)

    . Single-Volume Books

    2004 Kim Sam-Ki & Kim Hee-Soo Understanding of the Folk Relics 1: Wood Furniture The National Folk Museum of Korea

    2003 Gyeonggi Provincial Museum Gyeonggi Folklore VI: Livelihood and Craft Gyeonggi Provincial Museum

    2003 Chu Won-Gyo Korea's Craft Culture Yekyong Publishing

    2003 Heinrich F.J. Junker Old Paintings of Gisan Korea Minsokwon

    2003 Kim Sam-Dae-Ja Traditional Wood Furniture- Colorful Book Series 159 Daewonsa

    2002 Life Improvement Center of Rural Development Administration Hands of Carrying on Traditions Rural Development Administration

    2002 Jin Sun-Shin Paper Road Yedam

    2002 Geum Gwang-Bok Colored-Paper Craft- Colorful Book Series 82 Daewonsa

    2002 Im Yeong-Ju & Sang Ki-Ho Paper Craft Culture- Colorful Book Series 187 Daewonsa

    2001 Gwahakbaekgwasajeonjonghapchulpansa Folk Traditions of Joseon - Folk Craft Daesan Publishing

    2000 Pierre-Marc de Biasi Paper- Sigong Discovery Series 103 Sigong Publishing

    1999 Jeong Dong-Chan et al. Korean Craft as National Science Minsokwon

    1999 Kwon Sang-Oh Craft Materials and Techniques Tehagwon

    1998 Park Yeong-Kyu Wood Craft of Korea Bumwoosa

    1997 Ye Yong-Hae Pulse of Folk Craft Daewonsa

    1997 Kim Seong-Soo et al. Traditional Korean Crafts FPCP (Foundation for Protection of Cultural Properties)

    1997 National Research Institute of Cultural Properties Korea's Important Intangible Cutural Properties - Sobanjang7 National Research Institute of Cutural Properties

    1996 Asakawa Dacumi Soban and Dojamyeonggo of Joseon Hakgoje

    1996 Choi Kong-Ho Understanding of Korea's Modern Craft History Jaewon

    1994 Lee Jong-Seok Traditional Korean Crafts and Arts Youl Hwa Dang

    1994 Seoul Metropolitan Government A General Survey of Seoul Folk Culture6-8 Seoul Metropolitan Government

    1993 Yanagi Muneyoshi Craft Culture Singu

    Year Written by Title Published by Notes

    Year Written by Title Published by Notes

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 333332 -

    1998 Korean Culture Research Institute1 Formative Beauty of Korean Paper ""Hanji"" Lee Seonae Folk Studies, Kyunghee University

    1996 Social Science Research15 A Study of Formative Features on Cupboards and Cupshelves of Joseon Lee Chunseop Daegu University

    1992.2 Human Ecology Research7 A Study on Solemnity of Yeongsanje: Focusing on paper flowers Kim Taeyeon Daegu University

    1990.12 Art Thesis Collection31 Craftman Park Seong-Sam's Sood Carving Collection Hall Park Raegyeong

    1989 SADAE Thesis Collection6 A Study of the Trends of Paper Arts - Focusing on Korean Paper Arts Nam Sanggyo Hanyang University

    1989 Hongik Fine Arts10 About the Inheritance of Traditional Art and Its Popularization

    1989 Hongik Fine Arts11 The Popularization of Late Joseon's Art and its Social Role Choi Gongho

    1988 Korean Study Thesis Collection12 Birth and Promotion of Folk Arts Nam Sanggyo Hanyang University

    1988 Antique Fine Arts177 A Study of Modern Korean Najeonchilgi Choi Gongho

    1986 Hongik Fine Arts8 Traditional Arts during Japanese Colony: Focusing on Najeonchilgi Choi Gongho

    1984 Sangji University Thesis Collection5 Artistic Values of Traditional Korean Folk Arts Lee Gyubeom

    1977 Thesis Collection, Institute of Korean Culutre, EhwaWomen's University29 Artistic Analysis of the Decorative Patterns onWood Furniture in the Late Joseon Period BaeMansil

    1972 Hongik Fine Arts1 Demotic Features of Traditional Ceramic Art Lee Jongseok

    1966 SeoulWomen's Univeristy1 The Status and Problems of Korean Folk Craft and

    Year Book Title Written by Published byReferred Papers and Articles

    . Collections of Papers and Journals

    2003 A Study of Various Applications of Korean Paper Choi Muyeong Chung-Ang University

    2003 A Study of Electromagnetic Fields Song Gayeon Chonbuk National University

    2002 A Study of Artisans and Craftsmen in Seongju, Gyeongbuk in the16th Century Kim Ingyu Sogang University

    2001 A Study of the Formative Arts Using Korean Paper KimMinjeong Hanyang University

    2000 A Study of Najuban NamGungseon Chonbuk National University

    1996 A Study of Colors of Tinted Paper Used in Joseon Jeong Yeongyeong Konkuk University

    1995 A Study of Najeonchilgi of Joseon: Focusing on symbolic meanings of its patterns and social background Lee Seonyeong SookmyungWomen's University

    1995 A Study of Symbolic Meanings of the Plant Patterns in Traditional Korean Pottery andWood Craft Go Jeongseon Korea University

    1993 A Study of Openwork on Joseon'sWooden Furniture: Focusing on formative expressions Yun Jeongyeol Hongik University

    1991 A Study on Traditionality of Korean Folk Arts GoYeonghui Hanyang University

    1991 A Study on Traditionality andModernity of Korean Paper Arts EomGyeonghui Hanyang University

    1991 A Study of Formative Effects in Korean Paper Arts: - Focusing on Jiyeom KimGyeongsuk Hanyang University

    1991 A Study of Formative Expressions in JiyeomArts Kim Byeongju Chung-Ang University

    1990 A Study on Formative Nature of Paper Arts Kim Seonghui Hanyang University

    1989 A Study ofWardrobes Used in the Joseon Period Hwang Bongik Hongik University

    1989 A Study of the Beauty of Nature Expressed in Korean Paper Arts: Focusing on artwork Lee Insuk EhwaWomen's University

    1989 A Study of Air Holes in Joseon'sWood Craft KimGwangyeol Hongik University

    1989 A Study of Joseon's Paper Furture Jang Heungsuk SookmyungWomen's University

    1989 A Study of Formative Expressions in Korean Folk Arts Nam Sanggyo Hanyang University

    1988 A Study of Letter Cases of Joseon Wang Jongwon Hongik University

    1988 A Study of Designs and Patterns onWorkboxes of Joseon LeeMyeongyun Donga University

    1988 A Study of Changes and Improvements in Korean Paper Arts KimYeonghyo Hanyang University

    1987 A Study on Park Seong-Sam, AWoodcarving Artist: Focusing on his life and artwork OhHyeongseong Hongik University

    1987 A Study of Najeonchilgi in the Late Joseon Period andModern Times Choi Gongho Hongik University

    1985 A Study ofWriting Material Cases of Joseon: Focusing on the patterns on them GoGyeongmi SookmyungWomen's University

    1984 A Study of Metal Decorations in Joseon'sWoodcarving Arts - Focusing on hinge ornaments SeoHyoseok Keimyung University

    1984 A Study of Joseon'sWoodcarving Arts - Focusing on carving tools used in the late Joseon period Kim Boktae Chung-Ang University

    1984 A Study of Paper Arts and Crafts of Late Joseon Period Han Yugyeong HyoseongWomen's University

    1983 A Study of Korea's Plant andWood Craft Lee Eunju Hongik University

    1983 A Study of Paper Art Teniques Jang Yeongchun SungshinWomen's University

    1982 A Study of KoreanWood Crafts - Focusing on the social background of patterns and techniques KimHyeongseon SookmyungWomen's University

    1982 A Study on Korean Folk Shamanism Lee Uyong Keimyung University

    1981 A Study of Joseon's Paper Arts Jang Haejeong Hongik University

    1980 A Study of Hwagak Arts Park Geomryeong Hongik University

    1979 A Study of Geometrical Patterns in JoseonWoodcarving Arts KimHaesuk HyoseongWomen's University

    1978 A Study of Najeonchilgi GwakDaeung Hongik University

    1976 A Study of Formative Expressions onWooden Lamp Stands of the Late Joseon Period Lee Gyuhyang EhwaWomen's University

    1976 ABrief Examination of Tables Used in the Late Joseon Period KimHeonsuk EhwaWomen's University

    1975 A Study ofWooden Furniture Made in the Late Joseon Period: Focusing on the component ratio of planes BaeMansil EhwaWomen's University

    1975 Plane Division ofWooden Furniture Made in the Late Joseon Period: Focusing on articles left by middle and higher class families Bae Mansil EhwaWomen's University

    1970 A Study onDecoration Patterns of JoseonWoodcarving Arts KwakGyuchang Hongik University

    Year Title Written by Referred to

    . Master's and Doctor's Theses

    1998 Monthly Fine Arts Korean cultural arts in the US 3, Joseon folk arts with a dream of civilization, Peabody EssexMuseum WooHyeonsu

    1993.11 Monthly Arts Woodcarving artist Baek Tae-Won Choi Gongho

    1993.3 Monthly Arts Woodcarving artist ChangwonGang Chang-Gyu Choi Gongho

    1988.7 Monthly Fine Arts AComment on Woodcarving Artists: Looking back to two-thousand history of Koreanwoodcarving arts GwakDaeung

    1978.5 Fine Arts and Life10 The Past and Rresent of Korean Arts

    Features and Phases of Traditional Arts ImYeongju

    The Status and Problems ofWoodcarving Art Park Hyeongcheol

    1978 The quarterly Art Joiner, Cheon Sang-Won Lee Jongseok

    1977.8 Space122 Korea Exhibition Hall, 1900, Paris Lee Guyeol

    1972.12 Design package Materials and crafts of woodcarving arts Jeong Jaegyu

    1971.7 Furniture arts1 History of Korean Arts Lee Gyeongseong

    Year Magazine Written by RemarksTitle of Article

    . Magazine and Newspaper Articles

  • Wood and Paper in Korean Traditional Crafts 335334 -

    2003 Mountain village National Folk Museum of Korea

    2003 Unhyeongung palace-daily life relic Seoul Museum of History

    2002 Joseon genre painting exhibition catalogue National Museum of Korea

    2002 Korea sketch exhibition catalogue National Folk Museum of Korea

    2002 Joseon genre painting Gwangju National Museum

    2002 Kim Tae-Yeon - Royal table flower exhibition catalogue DEBEC Plaza Gallery

    2002 Joseonwood carving exhibition:Wistom soaked in leaves Ho-AmArt Museum

    2000 Beauty of wood carving arts - One step closer to beauty of nature Ho-AmArt Museum

    2000 Teachers, studens, textbooks - Teaching & learning history exhibition catalogues National Folk Museum of Korea

    1999 Masterpieces of Museum of EhwaWomen's University-Special exhibition of EhwaWomen's University 27 Museum of EhwaWomen's University

    1999 Korean cultural property catalogue in National Guimet Oriental Museum, France National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Korea

    1999 Koreanmodern fine arts: industrial arts - View onmodern age National Museum of Contemporary Art, Korea

    1997 Plum flower - Imperial life relic Royal Relic Exhibition Hall

    1997 Korean paper - post exhibition Walkerhill Museum

    1995 Danwon KimHong-Do - 250th anniversary exhibition Samsung Foundatis of Culture

    1995 Modern one-century folk landscape exhibition catalogue National Folk Museum of Korea

    1995 Modern one-century folk landscape exhibition catalogue National Folk Museum of Korea

    1995 Korean paper culture exhibition catalogue National Folk Museum of Korea

    1994 Korean E-commerce exhibition catalogue National Folk Museum of Korea

    1994 YuGil-Jun & dream of civilization - Korean cultural property exhibition by Peabody Essex Museum National Museum of KoreaChosun Daily

    1992 Royal relic exhibition hall, Deoksugung palace Royal Relic Exhibition Hall

    Year Published byCatalogue

    . Museums & Exhibition Catalogues

    1997 Small Business Corporation156 Woodcarving that has held our living culture Ju Seyun

    1995.8 Fine ArtWorld129 Grand traditional culture exposition GeumGwangbok

    1995.8 Ancient Fine Arts39 Folk Arts of the Late Joseon Period Yang Euisuk

    1994.8 Ancient Fine Arts38 Folk Arts of the Late Joseon Period Yang Euisuk

    1992 Sinmuk5 Korean's aesthetic consciousness reviewed through arts-Creation and promotion of frugalism

    1992 Culture & Arts150 Historic Background of Folk Arts- Essence of folk arts; Paperware KimsamDaeja

    1992 Culture & Arts150 Folk Arts and Living Culture Kim Jongtae

    1990.3 Ancient Fine Arts24 Joinery Arts of Chungmu Kim Jongtae

    1988.8.17 JoongAngDaily NAJEONCHILGI (lacqueredwares inlaid with mother-of-pearl) Kim Bongyong

    1986.1 Overall Design63 Household Paper Furniture KimGyeong

    1980.12 Monthly Fine Arts16 Structural beauty of Joseon's woodcarving arts Park Yeongok JoongAng Daily

    1978.8 Space134 Single chest of drawers set at the bedside, Koreanwood carving Park Yeonggyu

    1977.10. Space124 Desk - Korea'sWoodcarving Park Yeonggyu

    1977.7 Space121 Bookshelf - Korea'sWoodcarving Park Yeonggyu

    1977.3 Space117 Stationery Chest - Korea'sWoodcarving Park Yeonggyu

    1977.4 Space118 Korea'sWoodcarving: Five-Story Tables Park Yeonggyu

    1970.4 Sindonga68 Soban (small tables): Koreans' formative sense dwelling in woodcarving items Lee Daewon Dong-A Daily

    1967.2 Space2,2 Reflection of Korean Traditions -Wood Craft of Joseon:Wardrobes Choi Sunu

    1967.1 Space2,1 Korea'sWoodcarving: Stationery Furniture Choi Sunu

    1942.5.1 Chunchu16 Handicraft of Joseon II Ma Sansaeng

    1941.12.1 Chunchu11 Handicraft of Joseon I Ma Sanaaeng

    1909.3.28 Industries1 Introduction to Carpentry KimWonsik

    Year Magazine and Newspaper Articles Written by RemarksArticles

  • 2004 10 5

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    www.nfm.go.kr

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    Oct 5 2004

    The National Folk Museum of Korea

    Sejongno 1-1 Jongno-gu Seoul Republic of Korea

    www.nfm.go.kr

    Jisung Printting

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