 introduction  historical sources – ‘indika’ by megasthenes and ‘arthashastra’ by...

Download  Introduction  Historical sources – ‘Indika’ by Megasthenes and ‘Arthashastra’ by Chanakya and rock and pillar edicts of Ashoka

Post on 21-Dec-2015

225 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Historical sources Indika by Megasthenes and Arthashastra by Chanakya and rock and pillar edicts of Ashoka
  • Slide 3
  • 321BCE ascended the throne by defeating Dhana Nanda Successful because of the guidance and training given by Chanakya 305BCE Chandragupta defeated Seleucus and conquered north western India (between Asia Minor and Indus) Chandragupta Maurya
  • Slide 4
  • Seleucus Chandragupta Treaty Seleucus gave Eastern Afganistan, Baluchistan and areas west to Indus. Also gave his daughters hand in marriage to Chandragupta. He sent Megasthenes to Chandragupta as ambassador and in return got 500 war elephants. Chandragupta built the first great empire in Indian history. Empire Hindu Kush (north west to Bengal in the east); from the Himalayas in the north to the Narmada in the south. Kalinga was independent. Chandragupta Maurya
  • Slide 5
  • Chandragupta Mauryas son Ruled for 25 years Extended Mauryan Empire to Mysore Succeeded by his son Ashoka Bindusara
  • Slide 6
  • 273BCE Ascended the throne 261BCE Got the powerful kingdom of Kalinga under his control. Kalinga was known to control the land and sea routes to South India and South East Asia. Kalinga War turning point in Ashokas life gave up violence and he embraced Buddhism.Fom dig vijaya (conquest of territories) he moved on to dhamma vijaya (conquest through dharma) Ashoka
  • Slide 7
  • Ashokas vast empire Himalayas north Mysore South Hindu Kush in North West Brahmaputra East Kabul, Kandahar, Herat Parts of Nepal and Kashmir
  • Slide 8
  • dhamma = dharma (religious duty) Inspired by human values, code of conduct based on the teachings of Buddha entire life - spread his dhamma Principles of his dhamma 1. people peace, harmony 2. ahimsa, non violence, non injury to living creatures 3. love, tolerance and respect towards other religions 4. children obey elders, elders sense of understanding 5. truthful, charitable, kind to all even servants and slaves Ashokas Dhamma
  • Slide 9
  • followed it strictly himself set an example for others visited places related to Buddhas life like Bodh Gaya and Sarnath funded construction of Buddhist monasteries sent Buddhist scholars to spread Buddhism sent son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka special officers Dhammamahamatras engraved in Prakrit on rocks, pillars and caves people can read and follow them organized third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra discuss ways to propogate Buddhism Propagation of Dhamma
  • Slide 10
  • important historical source comprise of royal commands or proclamations inscribed on rocks, polished stone pillars and caves composed in Prakrit and written in Brahmi script north west written in Greek, Kharoshthi and Aramaic Ashokan Edicts
  • Slide 11
  • Ashoka one of the greatest kings in Indian history Believed that king is like a father to his subjects Prosperity, happiness and welfare of subjects given importance mahamatras administrative officers Good roads, shady trees on both sides Wells, rest houses for weary travellers Health centres men, animals Officials tour among subjects to solve peoples problems First monarch to give up violence universal brotherhood, tolerance Ideals of Kingship
  • Slide 12
  • King supreme power Council of Ministers Mantri Parishad Departments treasury, industry, revenue, security Official supervises each department. Division of empire provinces controlled by princes of the royal family kumaras viceroys or representatives of the King Provinces further divided into districts. Districts divided into many nagaras (towns) and gramas (villages) Every level ruled by an official. Mauryan Administration
  • Slide 13
  • Capital city of Mauryan empire Administration role model for administration of cities Six Committees of five members each Each Committee in charge of a particular department like industries, regulation of births, deaths, care of foreigners, trade and commerce. These 30 members supervised health, sanitation, education related problems. Elaborate spy system Well equipped army, infantry, cavalry, elephants, chariots, navy Department to look after production of weapons. Army always alert and ready. Pataliputra
  • Slide 14
  • Magnificent walled city Many gates, watch towers Well connected Kings palace large, made of stone Pataliputra
  • Slide 15
  • Age of cultural brilliance Numerous stupas, monolithic pillars (edicts of Ashoka), caves and sculpted figures highly polished Eg Sarnath pillar Influenced by Buddhism Ashoka got 84,000 stupas built. Stupas strong, semicircular, dome like structures, made of stones, bricks Relics of Buddha his hair, tooth kept at the base of stupa Eg stupa at Sanchi Built prayer halls, monastries (viharas) Mauryan Art
  • Slide 16
  • Lion capital Four lions sitting back to back on a circular base carved from a single piece of stone Base decorated sculptures of four animals separated by four wheels (dharma chakras) 1950 Lion capital adopted as national emblem of India currency notes Wheel motion, progress national flag of India Pillar at Sarnath
  • Slide 17
  • Peace, stability growth of economy Main occupation agriculture farmers encouraged to cultivate on a large scale irrigation facilities provided to them Land revenue from farmers chief source of income for King Mining, forestry, carpentry, pottery, masonry, trade and commercial activities Inland and overseas trade Sri Lanka, Egypt, Greece Taxes collected from mines, forests, other professionals. Taxes used for paying salaries to officers, maintain army, build roads, hospitals. Mauryan Economy
  • Slide 18
  • 232BCE Ashokas death Ashokas successors weak, inefficient Vast empire difficult to control No strong central authority Viceroys became independent Expenses increased maintain army, elaborate administrative system Last ruler Brihadratha killed by Pushyamitra Sunga (founder of Sunga Dynasty) Decline of Mauryan Empire
  • Slide 19
  • Click to see Video