# Лекц 3 valuation of bonds

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Valuation of Bonds

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Лекц 3 Valuation of bonds

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Valuation of Bonds

Principles of Valuation

First Principles: Value of financial securities = PV of expected

future cash flows To value financial securities we need to:

Estimate future cash flows: • Size (how much) and • Timing (when)

Discount future cash flows at an appropriate rate:• The rate should be appropriate to the risk presented by

the financial security.

Definition of a Bond

A bond is a legally binding agreement between a borrower and a lender: Specifies the principal amount of the loan (face

value or par value) Specifies the size and timing of the cash flows

(coupon payments):• In dollar terms (fixed-rate borrowing)• As a formula (adjustable-rate or floating-rate borrowing)

Example of a Bond Consider a U.S. government bond listed as 6 3/8 of

December 2011. The Par Value of the bond is \$1,000. Coupon payments are made semi-annually (June 30 and December

31 for this particular bond). Since the coupon rate is 6 3/8 the payment is \$31.875. Principal repayment is on December 31, 2011. On January 1, 2006 the size and timing of future cash flows are:

06/1/1

875.31\$

06/6/30

875.31\$

06/12/31

875.31\$

11/6/30

875.031,1\$

11/12/31

How to Value Bonds

Identify the size and timing of cash flows. Discount at the correct discount rate.

If you know the price of a bond and the size and timing of cash flows, then you can calculate the discount rate

This discount rate that discounts future cash flows to the current price is the Yield to Maturity or YTM of the bond

Pure Discount Bonds Also called zero coupon bonds Information needed for valuing pure discount bonds:

Time to maturity (T) = Maturity date - today’s date Face value (F) Discount rate (r)

TrFPV

)1(

Present value of a pure discount bond at time 0:

0

0\$

1

0\$

2

0\$

1T

F\$

T

Pure Discount Bonds: Example

Find the value of a 30-year zero-coupon bond with a \$1,000 par value and a YTM of 6%.

11.174\$)06.1(

000,1\$)1( 30

Tr

FPV

0

0\$

1

0\$

2

0\$

29

000,1\$

30

0

0\$

1

0\$

2

0\$

29

000,1\$

30

Level-Coupon BondsInformation needed to value level-coupon bonds:

Coupon payment dates and time to maturity (T) Coupon payment (C) per period and Face value (F) Discount rate (r)

TT rF

rrCPV

)1()1(11

Value of a Level-coupon bond= PV of coupon payment annuity + PV of face value

0

C\$

1

C\$

2

C\$

1T

FC \$\$

T

Level-Coupon Bonds: ExampleFind the present value (as of January 1, 2006), of a 6-3/8 coupon T-

bond with semi-annual payments, and a maturity date of December 2011 if the YTM is 5-percent.

On January 1, 2006 the size and timing of cash flows are:

06/1/1

875.31\$

06/6/30

875.31\$

06/12/31

875.31\$

11/6/30

875.031,1\$

11/12/31

52.070,1\$)025.1(

000,1\$)025.1(

11205.

875.31\$1212

PV

DurationDuration of a Zero Coupon Bond

0Maturity date

Duration

Duration (contd.)Duration of a Coupon Paying Bond

0

Maturity date

Duration

Duration (contd.) Measure of bond price sensitivity to

interest rate risk A bond with longer duration has higher

relative price change than one with shorter duration when interest rate (YTM) changes

Bond Concepts1. Bond prices and market interest rates move in opposite

directions.

2. When coupon rate = YTM, price = par value.When coupon rate > YTM, price > par value (premium bond)When coupon rate < YTM, price < par value (discount bond)

3. A bond with longer maturity has higher relative price change than one with shorter maturity when interest rate (YTM) changes, all other features being identical.

4. A lower coupon bond has a higher relative price change than a higher coupon bond when YTM changes, all other features being identical.

YTM and Bond Value

When YTM = coupon, the bond trades at par.

When YTM > coupon, the bond trades at a discount.

800

1000

1100

1200

1300

\$1400

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1YTM

Bon

d V

alue

6 3/8

Maturity and Bond Price Volatility

Consider two otherwise identical bonds.

The long-maturity bond will have much more volatility with respect to

changes in the discount rate

C YTM

Bon

d V

alue

Par

Short Maturity Bond

Long Maturity Bond

Coupon Rate and Bond Price Volatility

Consider two otherwise identical bonds.

The low-coupon bond will have much more volatility with respect to changes in the

discount rate (YTM)

YTM

Bon

d V

alue

High Coupon Bond

Low Coupon Bond